## Methodology

## 4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the methodological analysis employed to look into the alterations of outgo form. This chapter consists of several subdivisions. The first subdivision focuses on the treatment of the model of the survey in 4.2. The form of energy ingestion and family outgo, the theory of input end product, intercrossed input end product tabular array, energy strength and CO2 emanation factor are discussed in subdivisions 4.3 – 4.4, followed by the direct and indirect CO2 emanation by family and structural alteration of the decomposition in subdivision 4.5-4.6. The last subdivision ( 4.7 ) presents the informations used in this survey in the signifier of terminal period from 1990 – 2005 and a treatment on Malaysia Input-Output Table.

## 4.2 Model of the survey

The model of this survey is presented in Figure 4.1. The diagram reflects the flow chart of the methodological analysis. This diagram consist three divisions that is energy demand, energy analysis and CO2 emanation, and structural decomposition. In order to accomplish nonsubjective one, the survey starts with rating of the growing of energy ingestion and outgo by utilizing the compounded one-year growing rate ( CAGR ) . Energy ingestion have split up into two word picture i.e direct and indirect in term of family position.

Energy analysis

Input end product analysis

Hybrid analysis

Impact to environment

Direct

Indirect

2. Energy analysis & A ; CO2 emanation

3. Structural decomposition analysis ( SDA )

1. Energy demands & A ; outgo

CO2 emanation factor

Direct

## ( Simple energy emanation theoretical account )

Indirect

## ( Integrated IO theoretical account )

Structural decomposition analysis ( SDA )

Hybrid Input Output Table

( HIOT )

Carbon dioxide

Emissions by class

Energy ingestion and outgo and export ( CAGR )

Energy strength

## Input signal

## End product

Figure 4.1: Model of the survey

The direct energy ingestion by production sectors are considered as indirect energy ingestion by family. Family does non merely devour direct energy for electricity, natural gas and crude oil merchandise, but besides they consume indirect energy by buying goods and services.

Households sector is the chief ingestion factor in the economic system. The chief ingestion sector is formed by the families. Families have many classs of outgos in purchasing merchandise such as nutrient, conveyance, electrical contraptions, etc and usage services such as medical, instruction, hotel etc. Household outgo study is employ in this survey to place the list of family outgo on consumer goods and services. The whole economic system is based on this ingestion of goods produced by production sector and services provided by service sector.

This survey followed by the procedure of energy analysis which utilizing the input end product analysis and intercrossed analysis in order to finish the nonsubjective 2. The consequence from this analysis is possible to reply for many inquiries in this survey. This portion will get down with the debut on input end product and intercrossed analysis in the following sub-topic, ( 4.3 to 4.4 ) . By building Hybrid input end product tabular array ( HIOT ) , which the combinations of pecuniary and physical units, it easy to place the entire energy inputs used by every sector. The sum of energy inputs is really of import component in order to gauge an energy strength and CO2 emanation factor every bit good as to gauge CO2 emanation by family direct ( electricity, natural gas and crude oil merchandise ) and indirect ( sector, ingestion and export ) .

The survey use structural decomposition analysis ( SDA ) to break up the alterations in CO2 emanation direct and indirect in order to reply nonsubjective 3. In this survey, Structural Decomposition Analysis concentrates on CO2 emanation from the production and ingestion sector and exported states. This is because beside responsible to domestic pollution, Malaysia besides responsible for the planetary environment resulted from their ingestion.

## 4.3 Pattern of energy ingestion and outgo

This survey uses the simple statistic method ; compounded mean growing rate ( CAGR ) in order to analysis the form of energy ingestion and family outgo. The CAGR was used in this survey because it is frequently used to depict the growing over the period of clip of some component such as GDP growing, income growing and the form of energy ingestion and outgo. CAGR is widely used, peculiarly in growing industries or to compare the growing rate of two old ages.

The forms of energy ingestion have divided into two word picture ; direct and indirect in term of family position. In Malaysia, energy ingestion straight used by family is from coal, crude oil merchandise and electricity. While indirect energy used by family semen from production activities such as natural gas, rough oil, coal, crude oil merchandise, electricity and etc. This survey besides observes the form of family outgo. In line with this, family outgo has divided into 19 groups based on MISC. the form or growing rate of outgo were calculated by terminal twelvemonth ; 1982/83, 1994/95, 1998/99 and 2004/05.

## 4.4 Energy analysis and CO2 emanation factor

The theoretical account applied is an drawn-out input-output theoretical account based on Malayan input end product tabular arraies plus energy flow matrices or normally known as Hybrid input end product tabular array ( HIOT ) . These can be linked together due to the usage of common categorizations. This survey has chosen the theoretical account of Munksgaard et Al. ( 2000 ) because the theoretical account covers the energy production and ingestion rhythm, and is able to separate between direct and indirect emanations but for this survey have extend to export without emphasize authorities and investing.

## 4.4.1 Input-output analysis

This survey applies an input-output analysis in order to implement the aims of the survey. Input-output analysis is a agency which fulfils this multi-sector attack. Input-output analysis is an empirical tool designed to analyze mutualities of sectors in the economic system ( Miller and Blair, 1985 ) . Therefore, it is able to place any peculiar and specific loads or benefits related to different sectors. The input end product analysis describes the flows of goods and services via an economic system units for a given clip period fundamentally a twelvemonth. The Figure 4.2 represents a simplified version of an input-output tabular array, bespeaking the pecuniary flows of the Malayan economic system in the twelvemonth 2000.

The rows of this tabular array describes that the entire end product of an industry sector can either travel to other sectors ( i.e. to intermediate demand ) or to concluding demand ( e.g. to household ingestion ) . Therefore, we can see to what extent any peculiar sectors can sell their manufactured goods and services to other sectors and to the concluding demand while the columns describes which inputs a sector uses to bring forth its end product. The columns refer to the production side, while the rows show the distribution of the manufactured goods and services. Input end product theoretical account can deduce from input end product tabular array by utilizing some mathematical computation. The conventional of input-output theoretical accounts is merely to bring forth goods for concluding demand ( or ingestion ) . Basically, the purpose of basic input-output theoretical account is to mensurate how much extra end product is needed for each sector in response to a unit addition in the concluding demand.

The construction of the input-output tabular array has two chief maps: foremost, as a descriptive model which explains interrelatednesss between industries or between inputs and end products, and secondly, as stuff which provides information for depicting the consequence of a alteration in an activity or sector of the economic system. The construction of an input-output tabular array comprises of four quarter-circles as shown in Figure 4.2.

Industry sectors

Sector A ( Agriculture, Crude oil, crude oil or Services )

Concluding Demand

Entire Output

Sector A ( Agriculture, Crude oil, crude oil or Services )

Quadrant I

( A )

Quadrant II

( Yttrium )

Ten

Primary Inputs

Quadrant III

( W )

Quadrant IV

( V )

Uracil

Entire Input

crosstalk

terrestrial time

## A

Figure 4.2: Structure of an Input-Output Table

In quadrant I ( A ) , there are “ inter-industry minutess ” , i.e. minutess of trade goods which are used as inputs in sectors. Numbers in a individual row represent outputs allocated to sectors as inputs, and it is termed as “ interindustry demand ” . Numbers in a column show the utilizations of inputs of a sector in a column, and the inputs are called “ intermediate inputs ” . In input-output analysis, this quarter-circle plays an of import function, because the sectoral mutualities occur in this quarter-circle. The finding of multiplier effects is based on figures in quadrant I. In quadrant II ( Y ) , the column represents private ingestion, authorities ingestion ( federal, province, local ) , alterations in stock list, gross fixed capital formation, and export. In a individual row this quadrant represents the composing of concluding demand from a sector and how the end product is provided. Likewise, a column shows the distribution of each concluding demand constituent by sectors.

Quadrant III ( W ) is normally called the “ primary input ” quarter-circle or the value-added quarter-circle. It contains gross value-added or primary inputs. A individual row represents the distribution of gross value added by sectors, while a individual column shows the composing of gross value constituent of gross value-added. Unlike other quarter-circles, in which 1 can complect, quadrant IV ( V ) is fundamentally used for finding the gross domestic. This quadrant takes the amount of the incomes in the last row, which is equal to the amount of the spendings in the last column. The figure denotes the GDP.

It shows the alterations in ingestion may impact the production of different sectors so depict the construction of the economic system and its interaction with the environment. For illustration, alterations in agricultural merchandise gross revenues will hold immediate ( direct ) effects on the nutrient and drinks industry, but cause minimum immediate ( indirect ) effects on the transit industry, and any other industries which provide inputs to the nutrient and drinks industry. In this regard, input-output theoretical accounts exemplify how the economic alterations in one industry can act upon other industries.

Therefore, input-output theoretical accounts consider both direct and indirect effects of all economic activities. This attack is able to separate between the intermediate demand consequence ( or production demand ) and the concluding demand consequence ( or ingestion demand ) . The production demand can be farther divided into direct and indirect production demands. For illustration, households purchase goods and services for direct usage ; this constitutes the direct ingestion demand consequence. But, if the concluding demand for the end product of a peculiar industry additions, a corresponding addition in the inputs to that industry is besides necessary ( this is the direct production demand consequence ) . In the same manner, additions in inputs from other industries must take to a corresponding addition in the end products from these sectors, and so forth for an ageless figure of unit of ammunitions ( these correspond to the indirect production consequence ) .

An input-output theoretical account is utile in analyzing the economic relationship of linkages among major sectors of an economic system. An input-output theoretical account is an equilibrium theoretical account in that it assumes no excess of production or ingestion. This implies the theoretical account as a inactive theoretical account. Economists on a regular basis use the input-output theoretical account to analyze the economic impact of the sectoral end product, employment and income on the economic system due to alterations in exogenic variables. Central to the usage of input-output theoretical accounts is the premise that demand is a fixed proportion of entire end product. Therefore, any addition in entire end product will take to a specific addition in each input class that is used in the production of that end product which can be represented by the proficient coefficient ( aij ) of the peculiar sector,

aij = xij / Xj ( 1 )

where, xij is end product from sector I used as an input in sector J and Xj represents entire end product of sector J.

The input-output tabular array shows the inter-industry minutess, the concluding demand and the primary input subdivisions. Taking a flow of intermediate goods from sector I to sector J as aij, production in sector I as Eleven, the monetary value of end product in sector I as Pi, and concluding demand for end product from sector I as Fi, so the value of end product produced by sector I is ; PiXi = i?“j Pi xij + PiFi ( 2 )

Then, replacing Equation ( 1 ) into Equation ( 2 ) gives

Eleven = i?“j aij Xi + Fi ( 3 )

Equation ( 3 ) indicates that entire end product is the amount of merchandises for intermediate usage and end product consumed in concluding demand market. It is the ith row of the matrix equation X = AX + F ( 4 )

where, A ( n x N ) represents the proficient coefficients matrix, X ( n x m ) represents column vector of sectoral gross end product and F ( n x m ) represents column vector of concluding demands which comprise private ingestion, public outgo, investing and exports.

Equation ( 4 ) can be solved for X giving

F = ( I – A ) Ten

( I – A ) -1 ( I – A ) Ten = ( I – A ) -1 F

IX = ( I – A ) -1 F

Ten = ( I – A ) -1 F ( 5 )

Where

I is the individuality matrix and

( I – A ) -1 is the Leontief opposite matrix ( n x N ) or normally called the multiplier matrix.

Each of the multiplier matrixes or coefficients shows entire demands ( both the direct and indirect effects ) of increasing concluding demand for any sector. Each cell in the “ entire ” row of the entire demands table gives the analyst a multiple by each dollar of increased concluding demand that will impact the overall end product of the economic system. It measures how much entire production of goods and services is required throughout the economic system for every one dollar of extra concluding demand for the goods produced by the industry named at the top of the column.

## 4.4.2 Hybrid Input Output analysis

This survey use the intercrossed input end product tabular array in order to follow energy flows in the economic system in Ktoe and non-energy flows in value term such as ringgit Malaysia ( RM ) . Table 4.3 shows the relationship between energy usage and other sector in the economic system within the drawn-out input end product model.

By and large, energy input end product determines the sum of energy required to present a merchandise to concluding demand, ( Miller and Blair,2009 ) . Energy sector divided into 3 chief sectors as follows:

Crude oil, natural gas and coal

Petroleum merchandise and coal

Electricity

## Industry sector

## Energy sector

Other sector

Intermediate demand

Concluding demand

Consumption

Government

Gross capital formation

Export

Energy sector

## ENERGY CONSUMPTION ( KTOE )

Other sector

## Intermediate CONSUMPTION ( RM )

## FINAL DEMAND ( RM )

Primary input

Import

## ( KTOE )

## ( RM )

## ( RM )

Value added

## GROSS VALUE ADDED ( RM )

Entire input

## ( KTOE )

## ( RM )

## A

## A

## A

## A

Figure 4.3: Schematic of Hybrid input end product tabular array

while non energy sector and services have divided into 37 sectors including agribusiness, fabrication, building and services. In order to build Hybrid input end product tabular array, the minor alteration were applied in the interindustry minutess in the basic input end product model of figure 4.2. In the intercrossed input end product an correspondent set matrices to Z, A, and L, that is energy minutess or flow of energy matrix which measured in physical unit of Ktoe, where A is direct energy demands matrix and L is the entire energy demands matrix. From the traditional input end product accounting individuality, Zi + f = x where Z is the matrix of interindustry dealing, degree Fahrenheit is vector of entire concluding demands ( private ingestion, authorities, investing and export ) and x is the vector of entire end product. All these points are measured in Ringgit Malaysia ( RM ) , but in this instance, this survey were measured energy flow in physical unit of Ktoe, hence assume that an correspondent individuality given by Ei + Q = g, where Tocopherol is the matrix of energy flows from energy bring forthing sector to all sector as consumers of energy, Q is the vector of energy bringings to concluding demand and g is the vector of entire energy ingestion. This survey aggregated 40 sectors which 3 is energy sectors, so Z will be 40 ten 40, but E will be of dimension 3 ten 40. It is the same to f and x are of dimension 40 ten 1 ; Q and g will be of dimension 3 ten 1. In antecedently A is the matrix of proficient coefficients so Z =Au and it follows that L = ( I – A ) -1, the familiar Leontief opposite, so that entire demands can be expressed as ten = Lf, so L is the entire energy demands in the equation g = I±f where I± is 3 ten 40.

## 4.4.3 Energy strength ( Total energy demand )

Input-output energy analysis is a specific application of economic input-output analysis. The first work on input end product energy analysis have done by Wright ( 1974 ) , and Bullard and Herendeen ( 1975 ) and recent reappraisal by Peet ( 1993 ) . The aim of input-output energy analysis is the computation of energy strengths or entire energy demand. The energy strength of an economic sector gives the entire sum of energy, both direct and indirect, that is needed for one fiscal unit of production of that sector. The direct energy usage of an economic sector comprises the energy straight used in the production procedure of that sector. The indirect energy usage of an economic sector comprises all the energy that is needed for the production and bringing of the goods and services that are used in the production procedure. These goods and services include both the goods and services from domestic and foreign beginnings and the capital goods. In this survey, input-output energy analysis is used for the finding of the entire primary energy needed for the production of concluding demand.

The primary energy demands of concluding demand are besides called the cumulative energy demands, entire energy demands, or the corporal energy of concluding demand. The entire sum of primary energy that is required for bring forthing concluding demand is allocated to this concluding demand. In rule, primary energy is used in a restricted figure of energy sectors and distributed, in the signifier of goods and services, over all concluding bringings ( Miller and Blair, 1985 ) . For this survey, to find the entire energy demands of family is by uniting energy strength with outgo by family as done by Park ( 2007 ) for Korean families energy demand.

The input end product system in pecuniary units can be formulated in equation 1 and equation 2.

t1j + f1j – m1j = X1 ( 6 )

ej1 + tj1 + V1 = X1 ( 7 )

where X1 is the production of sector 1, e.g. crude oil merchandise, t1j are the intermediate end products of sector 1 to be used for the production of goods of sectors 1 to 40, tj1 are the intermediate inputs from sectors 1 to 40 for the production of goods of sector 1. degree Fahrenheit is the concluding demand which includes ingestion ( private and authorities ) , investings and exports. m is the imports and V is the value added inputs. The first summing up of Equation 2 means the inputs of 3 energy sectors. The 2nd summing up of Equation 2 means the inputs of 37 non-energy sectors.

This survey converted the pecuniary unit input-output tabular arraies into energy input-output tabular arraies with the aid of energy monetary values ( Miller and Blair, 1985 ) . First, mean energy monetary values are calculated utilizing information on energy usage and outgo by fuel of the input-output tabular arraies. Average energy monetary values are calculated as ratios of energy usage ( inputs ) to the entire end product ( intermediate plus concluding demand ) by fuel, expressed in Ktoe/RM, same as energy strengths as shown in Equation 3. The mutual Numberss of the energy strengths are more normally used monetary values expressed in RM/Ktoe. Therefore, higher Ktoe/RM values or higher energy strengths mean lower energy monetary values.

Pi = ei/Xi-mi ( Ktoe/RM ) ( 8 )

where ei is energy usage. P1, the monetary value of energy sector 1, e.g. monetary value of crude oil merchandise, is used to quantify 40 intermediate inputs of crude oil merchandise to bring forth goods of 40 sectors. Industries ( 40 sectors ) will pay much lower monetary values than families ( concluding outgo ) for the same fuel. The monetary value derived function exists within the intermediate demand for fuels. For more treatments see Lenzen ( 1998 )

t1, J x P1 = te1, J ( 9 )

Once intermediate energy inputs ( energy input-output tabular arraies ) are computed as in Equation 4, it is easy to gauge direct energy strengths of single sectors. Direct energy strengths are calculated as ratios of direct energy outgo converted in energy footings to entire inputs ( intermediate inputs and value added inputs ) , besides expressed in toe/RM in

d1 = ei, 1/Xi ( toe/RM ) ( 10 )

where d1 ( direct ) is the direct energy strength of sector 1. Entire or cumulative energy strengths can be so computed by multiplying them with the Leontief opposite ( 1-A ) -1 of the corresponding input-output tabular array as expressed in

di, J x ( 1-A ) -1 = Ti, J ( 11 )

The indirect energy strengths are the differences between entire Equation 6 and direct energy strengths Equation 5 equal to Equation 7.

Tij -dij =Indij ( 12 )

Sectoral sum or cumulative energy ingestion can be computed by multiplying entire energy strength with sectoral family outgo. Indirect family energy ingestion is so the amount of sectoral cumulative energy ingestions of 37. Direct usage of crude oil merchandises, coal and electricity in primary energy footings by families is considered as direct family energy ingestion. Entire family energy ingestion is the amount of direct and indirect energy demand.

## 4.4.4 Carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) emanation factor

The survey will gauge the CO2 emanation by production sector by and large produced by energy activities utilizing the six stairss of computation of CO2 emanation provided by IPCC ( Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ) Guidelines which gives instructions for gauging the emanations of CO2. This survey use the Tier 1 methods, dressed ore on gauging the emanations from the C content of fuels supplied to the state as a whole. The first measure starts with enter the energy informations or information in original unit i.e. Ktoe into the workbook provided by IPCC. Then the 2nd measure is change overing the energy ingestion unit from Ktoe into Terrajoule ( TJ ) for each fuel by multiply the energy ingestion in unit Ktoe to the relevant transition factor or grading factor so that energy ingestion in terrajoule ( TJ ) . For the 3rd measure, enter the C emanation factor to change over energy ingestion into C content by multiply the energy ingestion in TJ by the C emanation factor to give the C content in Tonnes of C. Then divide C content in tones C by 103 to give gigagrams of C. This survey have skipped step four because extra information is non available or considered believable, so carbon stored non necessary to cipher. In the 5th measure, this survey used fraction of C oxidized provided by IPCC in order to rectify the C unoxidized. The last measure or measure six is change overing the CO2 emanation by multiply existent C emanation by 44/12 to concluding sum C dioxide emitted from energy ingestion. Once, the CO2 emanation calculated, it is easy to find the CO2 emanation factor by utilizing following expression.

EFi = Ci/ ei ( 13 )

where EFi is the CO2 emanation factor of energy type 1 i.e. crude oil merchandise. Ci is the CO2 emanation from energy type 1 and ei is the energy ingestion by sector type 1.

## 4.5 Carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) emanation appraisal by class

The direct CO2 emanations are emanations related to the ingestion of energy trade goods in the families such as electricity, gas and crude oil merchandise. The indirect CO2 emanations by family are emanations related to the production of all other trade goods for the families including touchable and intangible goods and services.

This survey is carried out in three stairss:

1. Direct CO2 emanations from family energy usage are analyzed utilizing a simple energy-emission theoretical account.

2. Indirect CO2 emanations are analyzed utilizing an integrated input end product theoretical account that besides incorporates energy and emanations matrices.

3. The variables used in this survey will be confirmed with the econometric analysis.

## 4.5.1 Direct CO2 emanations by family

Model ( 16 ) below estimations direct CO2 emanations from family energy usage as the merchandise entire energy ingestion and the composing of energy types in the family and energy supply sector as given in Munksgaard et Al. ( 2000 )[ 1 ]

Ed=qd mendelevium fd ( 14 )

where Eh denotes a scalar of entire direct CO2 emanations from the family ; qh is a 1 ten 4 vector including the ingestion of four types of energy in the family, such as electricity, natural gas, LPG and kerosine in units of toe ; mh is a 4 ten 11 matrix of fuel mix in the family sector such as the demand for 11 energy types per unit of entire energy demand for four energy ingestion classs. degree Fahrenheit is a 11 ten 1 vector of CO2 emanation factors in units of T-CO2/toe for 11 energy types.

## 4.5.2 Indirect CO2 emanations by family ( Final demand )

Model ( 15 ) estimates the indirect CO2 emanations from family ingestion by utilizing the drawn-out input-output theoretical account introduced by Leontief and Ford ( 1972 ) .

Ei = fi ( mi # Rhode Island ) ( I-A ) -1 FDS # FDL ( 15 )

Where # denotes element by element generation, Ei denotes a scalar of entire indirect CO2 emanations in the production sectors as a effect of production of goods for family ingestion ; fi is an 11×1 vector of CO2 emanations per unit of ingestion of each of the 11 energy types ; myocardial infarction is a 11×40 matrix of fuel mix in the production sectors, i.e. demand for 11 energy types per unit of entire demand for energy for all production sectors ; Rhode Island is a 1×40 vector of energy strengths, i.e. entire energy ingestion per unit of production in all 40 sectors ; ( I-A ) -1 is the 40 x 40 Leontief opposite matrix, Cec is a 40 ten 30 matrix of the composing of family outgo category sums, i.e. 30 private ingestion family outgo category sums apportioned by production sectors ; cg is 30 ten 1 vector of aggregative family outgo category by part and stratum in private ingestion, i.e. demand for 30 outgo category per unit of entire ingestion ; C denotes a scalar of entire private ingestion. Equation ( 15a ) is for CO2 emanation by exported states where F is generation of environmental matrix, ( I-A ) -1 is the 40 x 40 Leontief reverse matrix and a‚¬a‚¬p, g, R is 40 ten 30 selected exported state.

Harmonizing to theoretical account ( 15 ) and ( 15a ) , indirect CO2 emanations change as a effect of alterations in seven factors plus export: degree Fahrenheit, myocardial infarction, Rhode Island, ( I-A- ) -1, Cec, cg, C. , a‚¬ . Whereas C and degree Celsiuss are factors of consumer behaviour, i.e. demand for ingestion by outgo category, degree Fahrenheit, myocardial infarction, Rhode Island, and ( I-A ) -1 are factors of behaviour of the house, i.e. demand for inputs in the energy supply sector and other production sectors and a‚¬ represented the export activities.

## 4.6 Decomposition of CO2 emanations utilizing Structural Decomposition Analysis ( SDA )

The first of import characteristic is it includes the families ‘ direct demand for energy and secondly, it handles the alterations in outgo category for private ingestion at an aggregative degree, embracing 30 outgo category by part and strata harmonizing to MISC[ 2 ]. In add-on, the informations screen 40 production sectors and 11 types of energy. The analysis covers the period from 1991 to 2005.

Therefore all alterations may be weighted utilizing either base-year values[ 3 ]for the other two factors or current-year values. Both attacks cause considerable prejudice, nevertheless. However, this method of decomposition is inconsistent with recent developments in economic theory.

Harmonizing to theoretical account ( 16 ) direct CO2 emanations are dependent on the alterations in the factors qh, mh and f. The decomposition analysis is carried out by altering the factors one by one in order to quantify the part of each factor to the entire alteration in emanations. The part of each factor, e.g. qh, is estimated as the alteration in the factor ( a?†qh ) . This is later multiplied by the other factors ( mh and degree Fahrenheit ) . The other factors may calculate at base degree or at current-year degree, nevertheless. This method is adopted from Munkgaard et Al. ( 2000 )

Each component in the decomposition expression has the same general signifier.

Therefore, the entire alteration in emanations from clip t – 1 until clip T is

a?†E= ( a?†qd mendelevium fd ) + ( qd a?†md fd ) + ( qd mendelevium a?†fd ) ( 16 )

Where a?†qd is the consequence of alterations in family energy ingestion degree ; a?†md is the consequence of alterations in the composing of energy types in family energy ingestion ; a?†f is the consequence of altering emanation factors, i.e the consequence of fuel mix alterations in energy production.

While the decomposition indirect CO2 emanation in theoretical account ( 17 ) , the entire alteration in emanations from clip t – 1 until clip T is a?†Ei

a?†Ei = a?†fi ( mi # Rhode Island ) ( I-A ) -1 CeccgC +

fi ( a?†mi # Rhode Island ) ( I-A ) -1 CeccgC +

fi ( mi # a?†ri ) ( I-A ) -1 CeccgC +

fi ( mi # Rhode Island ) a?† ( I-A ) -1 CeccgC +

fi ( mi # Rhode Island ) ( I-A ) -1 a?†CeccgC +

fi ( mi # Rhode Island ) ( I-A ) -1 Ceca?†cgC +

fi ( mi # Rhode Island ) ( I-A ) -1 Ceccga?†C ( 17 )

a?†Ei = a?†F ( I-A ) -1 a‚¬a‚¬p, g, R + Fa?† ( I-A ) -1 a‚¬a‚¬p, g, R ( 17a )

+ F ( I-A ) -1 a?†a‚¬a‚¬p, g, R

Where a?†f is the emanation factor consequence ( or consequence of fuel mix alterations in energy production ) ; a?†mi is the consequence of fuel mix alterations in the production sectors ; a?†ri is the consequence of alterations in energy strengths ; ( I-A ) -1 is the input mix consequence ; a?† Cec is the consequence of alterations in mix within family outgo category aggregates ; a?† cg is the consequence of alterations in mix between family outgo category aggregates in private ingestion ; and a?†C is the consequence of alteration in entire ingestion degree. Same to decomposition on export where a?†F is alterations in factor environment pollution, and a?†a‚¬a‚¬p, g, R is the consequence alterations in mix within exported state. Again, each component in the decomposition expression has the same general signifier.

## 4.7 Datas beginnings

The informations used for this analysis were:

The Malayan input-output tabular arraies aggregated on a consistent 40 production sector footing for 1991 and 2000 where all the values are expressed at the changeless monetary values of 2000 published by the Department of Statistic ( DOS ) . These tabular arraies encompass 92 production sectors and five classs of concluding demand. One of the latter is private ingestion, which is divided into 16 constituents.

Sing energy and pollutant emanations, CO2 information of family activities from the Department of Environmental ( DOE ) and Malaysia Energy Commissioner ( PTM ) .

The consumer studies from the Department of Statistics of Malaysia ( HES 19980/1982 to HES 2004/2005 and some informations such as Malaysia GDP and GDP per capita and population from Earth Trends Country Profiles, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Centre Intelligences Agencies.

The figures of entire registered conveyance provided by the Department of Road Transportation ( JPJ ) , Transportation and Communication and Population by DOS.