Antimicrobial Studies Of Ammonium Based Ionic Liquids Biology Essay

Ammonium based Ionic Liquids ( AILs ) were synthesized from alkanolamine by merely acerb base neutralisation reaction. The synthesized eight compounds were tested to measure their antibacterial belongingss for the first clip. Five microbic strains were used in this survey: Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Gram-negative Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae and Klebsiella pneumonia. The antimicrobic efficiency was measured by bacterial growing suppression expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) values. Ionic Liquids ( ILs ) are shown to expose antimicrobic activity with the activities being greatly affected by increasing alkyl concatenation length. Increase of the substituents in ammonium based ionic liquids show high anti-microbial activities.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Toxicity, Antimicrobial showings, Inhibition potency.

Introduction

Ionic Liquids ( ILs ) are organic salts with low runing point and boiling point that are being considered as green option for industrial volatile organic compounds ( Welton, 1999 ) . The repute of these dissolvers as “ environmental friendly ” chemicals is based chiefly on their negligible vapour force per unit area ( Brennecke and Maginn, 2001 ) . However, the solubility of ILs in H2O and a figure of literatures depicting the toxicity of ILs to aquatic being highlight a existent cause for concern. The cognition of ILs behaviour in the tellurian environment, which includes microbic debasement, sorption and desorption, is every bit of import since both dirt and aquatic milieus are possible receivers of IL taint. Some ( eco ) toxicological surveies of ILs have been done so far with bacteriums, phytoplankton, fresh water invertebrates and fishes and they showed that ILs are toxic to aquatic beings runing from bacteriums to angle ( Bernot et al. , 2005a, 2005b, Pretti et al. , 2006, 2009 ) . Nonetheless, a item survey of those beings is merely every bit of import if we are to the full understood the prospective destiny and effects of ILs in the aquatic environment.

The history of modern antiseptics and germicides was from several decennaries back. The old list includes benzalkonium chloride ( BAC ) and cetylpyridinium chloride ( CPC ) , both of which are quaternate ammonium compounds and are still now loosely used. Quaternate ammonium compounds ( QAC ) are considered as bioactive substances and are chiefly used for environmental disinfection, disinfection of medical equipment, and in infirmaries. In 1926, Browning et al. , described the antibacterial and fungicidal activity of heterocyclic QACs derived functions. In 1968, Reginald et al. , introduced the first QACs based on the bactericidal known as Zephird. In 1983, Preston et al. , detailed the consequence of a figure of structural characteristics on the efficiency of dialkyl QACs ; entire C atom contents of 22-24 were expected to be the most effectual.

T.L. Greaves, A. Weerawardena, C. Fong, I. Krodkiewska, C.J. Drummond, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 ( 2007 ) 22479-22487.

C. Zhao, G. Burrell, A.A.J. Torriero, F. Separovic, N.F. Dunlop, D.R. MacFarlane, A.M. Bond, J. Phys. Chem. B 111 ( 2008 ) 6923-6936.

I. Cota, R. Gonzalez-Olmos, M. Iglesias, F. Medina, J. Phys. Chem. B 111 ( 2007 ) 12468-12477.

Bacteria play a critical function as an ideal get downing point for ILs toxicity appraisals as they have short coevals times ( Pham et al. , 2010 ) . Preliminary toxicological probes have shown quaternate ammonium and pyridinium compounds have possible inhibitory effects on a assortment of bacteriums and Fungis. It was besides observed a tendency of increasing toxicity with an addition in the alkyl concatenation length substituent in the pyridinium, imidazolium and quaternate ammonium salts to assorted bacteriums including rods, coccus and Fungi ( Roslonkiewicz et al. , 2005, Pernak et al. , 2003 ) . The purpose of present work is to synthesise some ammonium based ionic liquids and carry out the microbic surveies to foretell the toxicity refering the chemical construction and physiochemical belongingss of those compounds. The compounds were assayed for antibacterial activity against five registered bacterial isolates, which were obtained from the Institute of Medical Research ( IMR ) , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and the trials were being done in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University Putra Malaysia ( UPM ) . The antibacterial activity of all the coroneted compounds was evaluated against the growing of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Gram-negative Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae and Klebsiella pneumonia at concentration 1 % , 10 % and 20 % ( v/v ) in deionised H2O.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Chemicals and reagents

All these hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids were prepared by neutralisation of ethanolamines with different acids. Ethanolamines include monoethanolamine ( AR class, 99 % , Aldrich ) , diethanolamine ( AR class, 98 % , Aldrich ) , and methyl diethanolamine ( AR class, 98 % , Aldrich ) and acids include formic acid ( AR grade 98 % ) , acetic acid ( AR grade 98 % ) and lactic acid ( AR class, 88 % ) . Solvents include acetonitrile, ethanol, propanone, methyl alcohol, trichloromethane was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Company ( Spruce St. , St. Louis, MO, USA ) and Merck-KGaA ( Darmstadt, Germany ) . All of the starting stuffs were purified under decreased force per unit area before usage. Disposable glasswork were obtained from Cell civilization media, Muller Hinton stock and agar, were purchased from Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. Antibiotics, gentamycin, were obtained from Roche Diagnostics ( Mannheim, Germany ) .

Antibacterial Screening

The synthesized compounds were screened in vitro for their antimicrobic activities against bacteriums S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. typhi, V. cholerae and K. pneumonia utilizing Well diffusion method ( Magaldi and Camero, 1997, Magaldi et al. , 1998, 1999 ) . The readying of trial home bases was as follows: 20 milliliter Muller Hinton Agar was melted and cooled to 55A°C to inoculate 1 milliliter of the bacterial suspension. The inoculated agar was poured onto an assay home base ( 9 centimeter diameter ) , and allowed to chill to room temperature. Once the medium was solidified, 100 Aµl from the nightlong civilization of the strain bacteriums were swabbed on the agar by utilizing cotton bud/hockey stick. The Wellss, each diameter 6 millimeter, were cut out of the agar. 20 Aµl of ionic liquid solution in different per centum ( 1 % , 10 % and 20 % ) was placed into the Wellss. Deionised H2O was used, as a dissolver to fix coveted solutions of the compounds ab initio. A sum of the petri dishes were so placed in an brooder, at 37A°C for 24 hours. After incubation, the diameters of the inhibition-cleared zones were calculated. The consequences were compared with the standard antibiotic Gentamycin.

EXPERIMENTAL

IR and 1H-NMR spectrophotometer were used to qualify the merchandises. The IR spectra were obtained on a Shimadzo Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer whereas the 1H-NMR spectra were obtained on a Bruker 400 MHz instrument. The thermic analyses were conducted utilizing Pyris 1 Thermalgravimetric Analyzer with temperature preciseness A±2A°C. The denseness of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids was measured with Anton Paar DMA-5000 digital vibrating-tube densitometer. Viscosity of each salt was measured utilizing a Brookfield Cap Viscometer Model Cap 2000+ . Glass passage temperatures were measured utilizing differential scanning microcalorimetry ( DSC ) at a 10A°C min-1 scanning rate. All of the starting stuffs were purified under decreased force per unit area before usage. The synthesized ionic liquids were kept in glass phials and closed with prison guard caps fitted with a silicone septum, to guarantee a secure seal and forestalling their contact with wet in air. The ionic liquids were taken from the phials with a syringe and instantly transferred into the setup for each experimental measuring to minimise the humid effects of ambiance.

Synthesis and word picture of quaternate ammonium based ionic liquids ( AILs ) :

All these hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids were prepared by neutralisation of ethanolamines with different acids. To equal molar sums of ethanolamine, acids were added drop-wise to a three-necked, circular underside flask equipped with reflux capacitor, a magnetic scaremonger, and an recess and mercantile establishment for N2 gas. It is due to cut down the production of heat in the reaction system. After blending, the mixture was kept with stirring in room temperature for 2 hours. Then the temperature was bit-by-bit risen upto 333.15 K for the completion of reaction. The reaction was followed by a thin bed chromatography utilizing aluminium sheets silica gel and methyl alcohol as eluent. The ensuing syrupy liquid was kept in vacuity over nightlong to take any unreacted stuffs. The merchandise output was estimated for different ionic liquids and they were approximately 80 % . The ionic liquids were stored under a N2 ambiance. The H2O contents of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids were investigated utilizing a coulometric Karl Fischer titrator DL 39 ( Mettler Toledo ) . The H2O content was found to be less than 425A-10-6 for all the eight ionic liquids studied in the present work. The samples of ionic liquids were characterized by their IR and 1H-NMR spectrum. The construction of ionic liquids used in this work are shown in figure 1.

2-Hydroxyethylammonium ethanoate ( HEA )

Output: 86 % , IR spectra: 3350 cm-1 ( wide extremum for OH ) , 2970 cm-1 ( CH3 ) , 2930 cm-1 ( CH2 ) , 1594 cm-1 ( ionic bonding ) , 1390 cm-1 ( COO ) , . 1H-NMR ( 400 MHz, methanol-D3 ) : 1.88 ( s, 3H, -CH3 ethanoate ) , 3.00 ( T, 2H, -N-CH2- ) , 3.30 ( s, 3H, -NH3 ) , 3.74 ( T, 2H, -O-CH2- ) , 5.37 ( s, 1H, OH )

2-Hydroxyethylammonium formate ( HEF )

Output: 82 % , IR spectra: 3290, 3058, 2939, 2879, 1650, 1531, 1382, 1174, 1062 cm-1, 1H-NMR ( 400 MHz, methanol-D3 ) : 3.10 ( T, 2H, -N-CH2- ) , 3.50 ( s, 3H, -NH3 ) , 3.74 ( T, 2H, -O-CH2- ) , 5.60 ( s, 1H, OH )

2-Hydroxyethylammonium lactate ( HEL )

Output: 78 % , IR spectra: 2970, 2931, 2877, 1566, 1411, 1355, 1309, 1120, 1070, 1022 cm-1, 1H-NMR ( 400 MHz, methanol-D3 ) : 1.29 ( s, 3H, -CH3 ) , 2.97 ( T, 2H, -N-CH2 ) , 3.27 ( Q, 1H, -CH ) , 3.71 ( T, 2H, -O-CH2 ) , 5.02 ( m, 3H, -OH )

Bis ( 2-hydroxyethyl ) ammonium ethanoate ( BHEAA )

Output: 90 % , IR spectra: 3400, 2050, 1670, 1590, 1080 cm-1, 1H-NMR ( 400 MHz, methanol-D3 ) : 1.91 ( s, 3H, -CH3 ethanoate ) , 3.14 ( T, 4H, -N-CH2- ) , 3.60 ( s, 2H, -NH2 ) , 3.80 ( T, 4H, -O-CH2- ) , 5.37 ( s, 2H, -OH )

Bis ( 2-hydroxyethyl ) ammonium lactate ( BHEAL )

Output: 80 % , IR spectra: 3188, 2923, 2852, 1554, 1395, 1334, 1066, 1043, 1016, 956, 1H-NMR ( 400 MHz, methanol-D3 ) : 1.30 ( s, 3H, -CH3 ) , 3.08 ( T, 4H, -N-CH2 ) , 3.80 ( T, 4H, -O-CH2 ) , 3.98 ( Q, 1H, -CH ) ,5.02 ( m, 4H, -OH )

2-Hydroxy-N- ( 2-hydroxyethyl ) -N-methyl ethanaminium ethanoate ( HEMAA )

Output: 81 % , IR spectra: 3208, 2893, 2852, 1564, 1395, 1344, 1026, 1011 cm-1, 1H-NMR ( 400 MHz, methanol-D3 ) : 1.91 ( s, 3H, -CH3 ) , 2.88 ( s, 3H, -CH3 ) , 3.26 ( T, 4H, -N-CH2 ) , 3.87 ( T, 4H, -O-CH2 ) , 5.27 ( m, 4H, -OH )

2-Hydroxy-N- ( 2-hydroxyethyl ) -N-methyl ethanaminium ethanoate ( HHEMAF )

Output: 70 % , IR spectra: 3217, 2788, 2696, 1587, 1463, 1375, 1340, 1137, 1074, 1008, 759 cm-1.

Terminology

I± = coefficient of thermic enlargement ( T-1 )

I? = denseness ( g. cm-3 )

I· = dynamic viscocity ( MPa s )

nD = refractive indicies ( K )

T = temperature ( A°C )

T = mass loss of map of temperature

dTA = foremost derived function of TA

Td = thermic decomposition

W = mass

PROPERTIES OF AMMONIUM BASED IONIC LIQUIDS:

Water Content

Density

The denseness of ionic liquids was measured withan anton paar hovering U-tube denseness metre, ( DMA – 5000 ) at T = ( 293.15 to 363.15 ) K with an uncertainness of A±0.01 K. The setup was calibrated by mensurating the denseness of Millipore quality H2O at regular intervals harmonizing to the provider instructions. The graduated setup was besides verified utilizing pure imidazolium ionic liquids with known densenesss ( X.L. Yuan, S.J. Zhang, X.M. Lu, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 52, 2007, 596-599 ) The densitometer has the viscocity rectification applied. The overall truth in experimental denseness measurings for all samples was found to be better than A±2.10-5 gcm-3.

Viscosity

The viscousness of each ionic liquid was measured utilizing a cone and home base, CAP 2000, L-series, Brookfield viscosimeter at T = ( 278.2 to 348.2 ) K with a temperature control truth of A±0.2 K. The viscosimeter was calibrated frequence harmonizing to the instructions utilizing standard standardization fluids provided by the provider. The viscosimeter was placed in a dry topographic point and the viscousness measuring proceeded every bit shortly as the sample was placed on viscosimeter home base. The sample is considered to be no longer in contact with the external environment, every bit shortly as the cone is extremely pressed on home base. The viscousness measurings were preformed in triplicate and the consequences are reported as an mean agreeing to within 10 MPa.s.

Refractive Indexs

The refractile indices of all ionic liquids, were determined utilizing ATAGO programmable digital refractometer, ( RX-5000 alpha ) , with a mensurating truth of 4.10-5. All the measurings were performed at T = ( 302.95 to 332.95 ) K with a temperature control truth of 0.05 K. The setup was calibrated by mensurating the refractile indices of Millipore quality H2O before each series of measurings harmonizing to the instructions and checked for pre imidazolium ionic liquids with known refractile indices ( .L. Yuan, S.J. Zhang, X.M. Lu, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 52, 2007, 596-599 ) .

Thermal decomposition

Thermal stableness of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids was investigated utilizing a thermohydrometric analyser, TGA, Perkin-Elmer, Pyris V-3.81, at temperatures T = ( 25 to 500 ) K. The consequence of temperature on the decomposition of hydroxyl ammonium was studied utilizing a Pt pan under N2 atmosphere, at a heating rate of 10A°C. min-1, with temperatue truth better than A±3k.

Antimcrobial Screening

Ammonium based ionic liquids were assayed for antibacterial activity against five registered bacterial isolates, which were obtained from the Institute of Medical Research ( IMR ) , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The antibacterial activity of all the coroneted compounds was evaluated against the growing of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Gram-negative Salmonella typhii, Vibrio cholerae and K. pneumonia at concentration 1 % , 10 % and 20 % ( v/v ) in deionised H2O. Muller Hinton Agar was melted and cooled to 55A°C to inoculate the bacterial suspension. The inoculated agar was transferred onto petri-plate and allowed to chill to normal temperature. Once the medium was solidified, 6 millimeter diameter holes were made in the cardinal portion of the agar home base and 20 Aµl of ionic liquid solution in different per centum ( 1 % , 10 % and 20 % ) was poured into the Wellss. Home plates were incubated at room temperature for 24 H or for more yearss until equal growing were present. The bacteriums were rejuvenated on Muller Hinton stock and subcultured as needed. The solutions were added in the well of the petri home base and deionised H2O was used as control. After incubation, the diameters of the inhibition-cleared zones were determined. The home bases were incubated at 37A°C and examined the zone of suppression around each well after 24 hours. The consequences were compared with the standard antibiotic Gentamycin ( 1, 10 and 20 per centum ) .

Table 1: Zone of Inhibition ( in millimeter ) found ( including diameter of good ) for different concentration of ionic liquids:

Bacteria & A ; intervention

Conc.

K. pneumonia

S. aureus

S. typhii

V. cholerae

Lis. monocytogenes

Gentamicin

20 %

10

21

20

10

20

Deionised

Water

HEA

1 %

10 %

7

20 %

11

HEF

1 %

10 %

9

12

11

9

20 %

10

14

14

10

Hel

1 %

10 %

7

20 %

9

BHEAA

1 %

10 %

12

10

20 %

14

14

BHEAF

1 %

10 %

7

20 %

11

BHEAL

1 %

10 %

20 %

7

HEMAA

1 %

10 %

13

13

8

16

20 %

17

16

9

18

HHEMAF

1 %

10 %

7

9

20 %

9

10

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this work, eight hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids ; 2-hydroxyethylammonium ethanoate [ HEA ] , 2-Hydroxyethylammonium formate ( HEF ) , 2-hydroxyethylammonium lactate [ HEL ] , bis- ( 2-hydroxyethyl ) ammonium ethanoate [ BHEAA ] , Bis ( 2-hydroxyethyl ) ammonium formate ( BHEAF ) , bis- ( 2-Hydroxyethyl ) ammonium lactate [ BHEAL ] , 2-Hydroxy-N- ( 2-hydroxyethyl ) -N-methyl ethanaminium ethanoate ( HEMAA ) , 2-Hydroxy-N- ( 2-hydroxyethyl ) -N-methyl ethanaminium ethanoate ( HHEMAF ) were synthesized and characterized. The reaction is a simple acid-base reaction organizing salt of ethanolamine with the anion from the corresponding acid. Since the reaction of ethanolamine with acid is extremely exothermal, an efficient chilling is indispensable throughout the reaction. The add-on of acid to ethanolamine under uninterrupted stirring gives a syrupy clear liquid. IR spectra of these compounds showed the formation of the salts giving the extremum at ~1595 cm-1 for ionic bonding. The other extremums, wide 3350 cm-1 for strong H bonding in OH, 1390 cm-1 for carboxyl group as asymmetric quiver, methyl and methelene group extremum at about 2970 and 2930 cm-1 indicates the being of coveted compounds. The wide set in the 3500-2400 cm-1 scope exhibits characteristic ammonium construction for all the neutralisation merchandises.

Figure 1: Some Hydroxyl Ammonium ILs synthesized for antimicrobic showing.

The 1H NMR and FT-IR spectra indicate a simple salt construction of the hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids. Therefore, in IR spectrum the wide set ( 3500 to 2500 ) cm-1 ranges imply typical ammonium construction. The carbonyl stretching and N-H plane bonding quivers are observed as a combined bond centred around 1600 cm-1. The samples of ionic liquids were besides characterized by its 1H NMR ( 400 MHz, methanol-D3 ) . The spectra informations of 2-hydroxyethanaminium ethanoate [ HEA ] are: 1.88.10-6 ( s, 3H, -CH3 Acetate ) , 3.00.10-6 ( T, 2H, -N-CH2- ) , 3.74.10-6 ( T, 2H, -O-CH2- ) .

Many of these ammonium salts, exists the possibility to undergo a condensation reaction and organize an amide compound. Therefore, an equal control of temperature is indispensable during the chemical reaction of salt formation ; otherwise heat development may bring forth the desiccation of the salt to give the corresponding amide as in the instance of nylon salts ( salts of diamines with dicarboxy acids ) ( Iglesias et al. , 2010 ) .

Table 1: Water content of the ionic liquids studied in the present work:

Ionic Liquids

Water Content

HEA

HEF

Hel

BHEAA

BHEAF

BHEAL

HEMAA

HHEMAF

Table 2,3: Datas used for standardization of equipment for measuring of physical belongingss of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids at T = 298.15 K. Experimental values of densenesss ( I? ) , and refractile indices ( neodymium ) at T = 298.15 K, present work and literature.

Ionic Liquids

I?/ ( g.cm-3 )

I·/ ( MPa.s )

neodymium

HMIM PF6

1.29341 [ 18 ] , 1.2935 [ 19 ]

607 [ 18 ] , 586 [ 20 ]

1.41694a [ 18 ] , 1.4163b [ 21 ]

HEA

1.14866c, 1.12 [ 14 ]

1.43682, 1.469 [ 15 ]

Hel

1.20452c, 1.228 [ 15 ]

1.43758, 1.4489 [ 15 ]

BHEMA

1.20634c, 1.22 [ 16 ]

a at T = 302.95 K, B at T = 303.15 K, degree Celsius at T = 293.15 K

14. X.L. Yuan, S.J. Zhang, X.M. Lu, J. Chem. Eng. Data 52 ( 2007 ) 596-599.

15. T.L. Greaves, A. Weerawardena, C. Fong, I. Krodkiewska, C.J. Drummond, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 ( 2007 ) 22479-22487.

16. C. Zhao, G. Burrell, A.A.J. Torriero, F. Separovic, N.F. Dunlop, D.R. MacFarlane, A.M. Bond, J. Phys. Chem. B 111 ( 2008 ) 6923-6936.

17. I. Cota, R. Gonzalez-Olmos, M. Iglesias, F. Medina, J. Phys. Chem. B 111 ( 2007 ) , 12468-12477.

18. A. Muhammad, M.I. Abdul Mutalib, C.D. Wilfred, T. Murugesan, A. Shafeeq, J. Chem. Thermodyn. 40 ( 2008 ) 1433-1438.

19. T.M. Letcher, P. Reddy, J. Chem. Thermodyn. 37 ( 2005 ) 415-421.

20. J.G. Huddleston, A.E. Visser, W.M. Reickert, H.D. Willauer, G.A. Broker, R.D. Rogers, Green Chem. 3 ( 2001 ) 156-169.

21. A.B. Pereiro, E. Tojo, A. Rodriguez, J. Canosa, J. Tojo, J. Chem. Thermodyn. 38 ( 2006 ) 651-661.

All instruments used for measuring of physical belongingss were calibrated utilizing pure Millipore quality H2O with known denseness, refractile index and dynamic viscousness, and farther tested with [ C6mim ] [ PF6 ] . It was found that the consequences were in good understanding with the current published information from our research group as can be seen in table 1 [ 18 ] . The physical belongingss of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids investigated in the present work is compared with the recent literature value and listed in table 2. The present experimental values of denseness, dynamic viscousness, and refractile indices for hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids are presented in tabular arraies 3 to 5. The disagreements in the physical belongingss values of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids when compared with the literature may be due to H2O content and method used to find it. The changing grade of H2O contents associated with ionic liquids when compared with the literature informations could be due to the trouble involved in drying at really low wet contents every bit good as the drying method involved.

The denseness of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids decreased linearly with increasing temperature. The most noteworthy property seen in table 1 is that ionic liquids with lactate anion show similar but high denseness, irrespective of the cation. It appears that denseness of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids investigated in this work showed high dependance on the molar mass of anion. The values of refractile indices besides decreased with addition in temperature and the values are found to be in same order as that of denseness. However for the dynamic viscousness, the values besides decreased with increasing temperature, but in a non- additive manner.

The denseness I? , the dynamic viscousness I· , and the refractile indices nD, values were fitted by the method of least squares utilizing the undermentioned equations [ 1,2 ] ,

And

Where I? is denseness of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids, I· is dynamic viscousness of ionic liquids, neodymium is refractile index of the hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids, T is the temperature, and A0 and A1 are correlativity coefficients. The values of Ao and A1 are estimated utilizing the method of least square fitting equations ( 1 ) – ( 3 ) and presented in table 4 along with the standard divergence ( SD ) values calculated utilizing the undermentioned look:

Where nDAT is the figure of experimental points, Zexp and Zcal are experimental and deliberate informations values, severally.

The comparing between the experimental and deliberate values of the denseness, dynamic viscousness, and refractile indices of the studied hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids are shown in figures 1 to 3.

Table 4: Experimental values of denseness ( I? ) , of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids at several temperatures ( T ) .

T/K

HEA

BHEAA

BHEMA

Hel

BHEAL

BHEML

293.15

1.14866

1.17385

1.14142

1.20452

1.20634

1.18323

303.15

1.14339

1.16639

1.13276

1.19784

1.19877

1.17619

313.15

1.13802

1.16012

1.12585

1.19186

1.19247

1.16954

323.15

1.13252

1.15396

1.11875

1.18578

1.18614

1.16277

333.15

1.12694

1.14764

1.11146

1.17964

1.17973

1.1559

343.15

1.12126

1.14122

1.10398

1.17345

1.17325

1.14893

353.15

1.11547

1.13466

1.09628

1.16719

1.16669

1.14186

363.15

1.10955

1.12797

1.08836

1.16086

1.16003

1.13468

Dynamic viscousness

T/K

HEA

BHEAA

BHEMA

Hel

BHEAL

BHEML

298.2

313.15

566.89

198.91

254.25

288.56

225.15

303.2

224.68

376.59

144.69

181.45

204.15

162.02

308.2

162.91

260.02

108.33

133.32

148.54

120.26

313.2

120.26

183.97

83.56

100.02

110.25

91.15

318.2

92.56

136.06

64.12

76.88

84.34

73.15

323.2

70.68

101.06

50.96

60.18

65.45

55.26

328.2

56.56

78.35

40.45

48.12

51.78

43.15

333.2

43.91

60.25

32.15

38.12

42.15

35.15

338.2

34.98

48.79

25.98

31.02

33.45

29.15

343.2

29.04

38.65

22.32

24.98

27.15

26.15

348.2

24.05

31.51

18.45

21.26

22.45

18.36

Density consequences for hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids were used to deduce other thermodynamic belongingss such as the coefficient of thermic enlargement. The coefficient of thermic enlargement of ionic liquids is defined by the undermentioned equation:

Where I± is the coefficient of thermic enlargement, I? is the denseness of hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids, T is the temperature and A0 and A1 are correlativity coefficients taken from equation ( 1 ) by suiting denseness informations.

It is observed that most of the compounds exhibited antibacterial activity when compared with that of standard. 2-Hydroxy-N- ( 2-hydroxyethyl ) -N-methyl ethanaminium ethanoate ( HEMAA ) possesses highest suppression for S. aureus, S. typhi, V. cholera and L. monocytogenes, and to some extent it is higher than the standard Gentamycin ( Figure 2 ) . Similarly, it is satisfying to detect that all these compounds are highly more effectual against bacteriums S. aureus. The observation proves the effectivity of antimicrobic activity with the addition of permutation in nitrogen cardinal atom in ammonium ionic liquids.

Figure 2: Inhibition potency for HEMAA with the concentration of 10 % and 20 % ionic liquid solution.

Decision

It is revealed that hydroxyl functionalized Ammonium based Ionic Liquids are holding antimicrobic activities to some extent with human infective bacteriums. It can assist to understand the consequence for other substituted ammonium ionic liquids and to foretell their suppression potency. Further surveies will be needed to look into the wide pertinence of these types of ionic liquids with other common bacterial strains.