Are Criminals Born Or Made At Birth Criminology Essay

What causes or contributes to criminal behavior within an person is really hard to explicate because there are many different theories around this issue. Some scientist such as Cesare Lombroso which begun Scientific Criminology believed that persons are biologically predisposed to criminal behavior ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.5 ) .Later others followed such as Ernest Hooten and William Sheldon which differentiated felons from non felons from certain characteristic such as assorted colored eyes or ruddy hair. ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.6 ) . Although these theories where discredited because of biass and methodological failing it led the manner to other signifiers of theories such as the heredity -Genetic theory, the XYY Chromosome theory, and encephalon and neurological disfunction theories. Other research workers do non believe that condemnable behavior is derived biologically, they believe that things like a individuals cultural environments, their cistrons and their environment predisposes them to criminal behavior. As a consequence felons, these research workers strive to turn out that persons are a merchandise of their environment and milieus. Therefore the chief intent of this essay is to pull from certain theories to help in explicating the fact that persons are biologically predisposed to criminal behavior.

The idea that persons were born felons originated in 19th century Italy, with Italian doctor Cesare Lombroso ‘s book entitled L’Uomo Delinquente. Throughout his book he discussed scientific criminology which was influenced by Charles Darwin ‘s theory of development ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.5 ) . Lombroso proposed that some people were biologically predisposed to criminal behavior or born to perpetrate offense, he besides believed that felons were merchandises of reversion or biological atavists to earlier familial signifiers ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.5 ) . Concept of Atavism Lombroso ‘s general theory suggested that felons are distinguished from noncriminals by multiple physical anomalousnesss ( CBS Interactive Inc 2010 ) .For his scrutiny he used Italian captives and ground forces forces. He advanced that felons and noncriminal could be differentiated by physical stigmata-such as big lips, level olfactory organ, and certain forms of the skull-as good as such penchants as tattoos or engagement in binges ( Male Crime and Deviance pg 6 ) . Although his theory was subsequently rejected it led to different doctors such as Ernest Hooten who began to spread out on Lombroso ‘s scientific criminology theory. He attempted to explicate male criminalism by utilizing organic structure type theories in his 1939 book entitled Crime and the Man. Which explained that felons could be indentified by assorted oculus coloring material, ruddy hair besides that tall heavy work forces were most likely slayings ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.6 ) ? William Sheldon shortly followed in 1940 when he consistently showed a correlativity between organic structure type and juvenile delinquency ( Male Crime and Deviance pg. 6 ) . He describes three organic structure types which were endomorphics, ectomorphics and mesomorphics, which each related to a certain personality or moderation trait. Mesomorphics were characterized as muscular, difficult, self-asserting, aggressive, and active. These types were believed to be the most likely to take part in offense ( Male Crime and Deviance pg. 6 ) . Although all of these theories were subsequently rejected because of methodological failings they opened the door to many other theories sing biological criminalism Theories such as the heredity -Genetic Theory, the XYY Chromosome theory and besides Hyperactivity and Antisocial behavior theory support the fact that persons are biologically predisposed to offense. They besides differentiate from past theories because they are scientifically based instead than prejudices and racialist. For illustration the heredity – familial theory supported by biological theoreticians such as Richard Dugdale and Henry Goddard explain that male offense and unnatural behavior are due to the familial transmittals of certain mental or physical features from coevals to coevals ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.6 ) . While other research workers found that certain biological features such as low birth weight and other antenatal jobs predispose some kids to delinquency and criminalism. Therefore doing it clear in this theory that some persons have certain biological feature that make them immune to criminal behavior.

The XXY chromosome theory is different from the heredity -Genetic theory, but it besides supports the fact that felons are born and non made. Research workers have discovered a familial abnormalcy in some males, where as the normal chromosome count for a male is XY some males had an excess Y ( XYY ) which was found to be associated with aggressive and violent behavior ( Male Crime and Deviance pg. 9 ) Among many other theories there is besides the encephalon and neurological disfunction and their effects in behavior. Some research has found unnatural EEG ( EEG ) recordings of encephalon activity in felons and delinquents, tie ining it with violent and aggressive behavior, destructiveness, limited urge control, and weak societal versions. ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.11 ) Besides individuals diagnosed with ADHD have been found to be at hazard for a figure of aberrances and unnatural conditions including delinquency, criminalism, feelings of ineptitude, psychiatric morbidity, unemployment, household disfunction, and self-destruction ( Male Crime and Deviance pg. 11 ) .Among many other theories these help explicate alternate roots of the job affecting felons.

While there are many theories that support the fact that persons are born into condemnable behavior, others do non believe that this is a valid reply.Therefore contribute condemnable behavior to other factors such as sociological, genetic sciences and biological theories. In footings of sociological theories there are many different theories, for illustration the societal reaction theory which is besides known as the Labelling Theory conducted by Howard S. Becker in 1963. It explained that when a individual commits a offense they will have the label of a condemnable, and when a individual is labelled as such by society they are likely to accept this label as portion of them. Now that the individual now thinks of themselves as a felon they will go on their condemnable behavior ( Zomba Inc 2010 ) . Although this theory is a really good theory, it does non truly keep up because unlike biological theories which discuss the root of the job this theory does non. Reason being that the theory neglects the procedure of going defiant in the first topographic point, the act of primary rebelliousness. It does non make a good occupation at depicting the primary portion of deviancy such as slaying, which is frequently a primary illustration of authoritative rebelliousness ( Arasite 2010 ) .

Among many of those theories there is besides the differential association theory which was supported by most criminologist and socialist, this theory states that offense like offense like other sorts of behavior, is learned. The theory points out the general conditions under which there are likely to be more than less condemnable behavior learned and therefore a greater likeliness that the individual will get a set of definitions that are more favorable to condemnable activities than noncriminal 1s. Furthermore, the theory states that criminalism is a societal instead than antisocial activity ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.27 ) . Although this is an first-class theory which tried to explicate condemnable behavior there are many defects, one is its inability to be validated through empirical testing because of a deficiency of lucidity in its definitions and nomenclature. Besides it failed to explicate the beginning of offense and delinquency or sketch the nature of the acquisition procedure Male Crime and Deviance pg.27 ) .

While some theoreticians focus on sociological theories to explicate offense and felons other focal point on the genetic sciences go arounding around this issue. One illustration of this is the Testosterone and Male Offending theory. Much of the research has found a positive correlativity between high degrees of testosterone, male force, and aggressive behavior. Early surveies focused on testosterone in captives. L. E. Kreuz and R. M. Rose found that degrees of testosterone were significantly higher in wrongdoers with a history of violent behavior than wrongdoers whose histories were nonviolent ( Male Crime and Deviance pg. 10 ) . Although this is a all right theory it failed to happen a concrete correlativity between testosterone and criminalism.

There is besides the Machismo and Males theory which is an of import construct in maleness and its relationship to male violent and aggressive behavior. Machismo has been peculiarly associated with the criminalism of Latino work forces. Many experts attribute their victimization and sexual maltreatment or the butch male, proposing that force against adult females is “ more likely to be a merchandise of machismo-oriented civilizations than civilizations that favour more equality of the sexes ( Male Crime and Deviance 34 ) .therefore Machismo appears to be rooted in Latino communities sense of household and cultural isolation.

Although some believe that felons are manufactured by genetic sciences and society, others believe that felons are a merchandise of their environment which includes such things as poorness, instruction, rearing practises and household construction. Many surveies have been conducted that believe that the per centum of hapless Americans who are populating in utmost poorness has reached a 32-year high ( Christian Association for Prison Aftercare 2010 ) . This is defined as persons populating at half of the federal poorness line. Sociologist and condemnable justness bookmans have found a direct correlativity between poorness and offense. Therefore it is believed that persons resort to offense merely if the cost or effects are outweighed by the possible benefits to be gained.A A The logical decision to this theory is that people populating in poorness are far more likely to perpetrate belongings offenses such as burglary, theft, or larceny ( Christian Association for Prison Aftercare 2010 ) . Although this theory may be true it does non associate to everybody, therefore there are many short approachs, and much contention among this theory. While some bookmans believe this theory to be true others believe that poorness does non hold a causal relationship to offense because there are states in which poorness is really high but the offense rate is comparatively low ( Christian Association for Prison Aftercare 2010 ) .

There are many other theories among them is the kid maltreatment and neglect theory, which is the relationship between kid maltreatment, disregard, delinquent and serious or violent condemnable behavior has been strongly documented on the literature. The act of being violated gives these vulnerable immature people a street-ready repertory of force ; they know how to kick because they have been kicked, they know how to knife because they have been stabbed, they know how to torture and mortify because they have experienced the same ( Telegraph Newspaper 2008 ) . For illustration Brandt Steele cited research in which more than 80 per centum of the juvenile wrongdoers had a history of being abused, with 43 per centum remembering being knocked unconscious by a parent. Martin Haskell and Lewis Yablonsky held that juvenile detainment installations are filled with wrongdoers who were victims of kid maltreatment. Similarly, self report informations on captives indicate a high per centum had been physically or sexually abused during childhood ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.42 ) . In malice of this persuasive associated between kid maltreatment and aberrant behavior, non all researcher agree that the two are needfully interrelated ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.42 ) .

Factor or grounds for delinquency and offenses are frequently really hard to explicate because there are many different theories and constructs around this issue that each takes a different base. Some scientist such as Cesare Lombroso believed that some people are biologically predisposed to criminal behavior ( Male Crime and Deviance pg.5 ) . His theory although filled with failing gave the land for other theoretician to follow but besides put their ain spin on it such as Ernest Hooten and William Sheldon. Although these theories where discredited because of biass and methodological failing it lead the manner to other signifiers of theories such as the heredity -Genetic theory, the XYY Chromosome theory, and encephalon and neurological disfunction theories. Although these theories may be really converting other research workers did non believe that condemnable behavior was derived biologically. They believed that things like a individual ‘s cultural milieus, their cistrons and their environment predisposes them to criminal behavior. Therefore the chief intent of this essay was to pull from certain theories to help in explicating the fact that persons were biologically predisposed to criminal behavior