Critical Appraisal Of Benzyl Chloride As Chemical Hazard Biology Essay

Benzyl chloride is a chemical substance besides known as I±-chlorotoluene alpha-chlorotoluene and exists in its pure signifier as a clear colorless liquid ( Rossberg, 2006 ) . It has a ( CAS ) Chemical Abstracts Service Number of 100-44-7 It has a molar mass of 126.58g/mol with a denseness of 1.100g/cm3. Other belongingss include a liquescent point of -39 oC, boiling point of 179 oC and a flash point of 165 oF, a denseness of 1.1 g/mL at 25 oC ( lit ) , vapour denseness 4.36, vapour force per unit area 10.3mmHg ( 60 oC ) , storage temperature 0-6 oC, H2O solubility 0.3g/L ( 20 oC ) . ( U.S. EPA, 1994a HSDB, 1991 ; Merck, 1989 ; Sax, 1987 ; Sax, 1989 ; )

This production procedure stated above is the most common but non the lone manner in which Benzyl chloride can be produced. For illustration, in Canada the most common method of production of Benzyl chloride is the blanc chloromethylation of benzine ( Blanc 1923 ) . Worldwide, approximately 100,000 metric tons of Benzyl chloride are produced yearly.

USES OF BENZYL CHLORIDE

Benzyl chloride is used industrially as a substance that reacts to organize benzyl esters that are so used as plasticisers, aromas and flavorants. ( US EPA, 1986 ) ( HSDB, 1991 ) .

In the cosmetics and beauty industry, Benzyl chloride is used in the industry of flavourants for cosmetics and other beauty and family merchandises. It is used along with intoxicant groups to protect and stabilise them ( US EPA, 1986 ) .

In the pharmaceutical industry it is used chiefly in the processing and industry of ( amphetamine drugs ) category B drugs ( US EPA, 1986 ) . This makes the sale and storage of benzyl chloride to be closely monitored by drug enforcement bureaus in the UK and US. It is besides treated with Na nitrile to bring forth benzyl cyanide which is so used in most pharmaceutical merchandises.

Benzyl chloride is besides less normally used in the exposure development procedure and in bring forthing man-made tannic acids ( US EPA, 1986 ) . Benzyl chloride is besides used in organic procedures to forestall gluey crude oil rosin sedimentations normally associated with the oxidative debasement of gasolene and other crude oil merchandises. ( HSDB, 1991 ) .

Benzyl chloride is used besides in chemical warfare as an thorn gas ( normally called tear gas ) that is used to repress enemies ( US EPA, 1986 ) .

HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS:

Human exposure beginnings to benzyl chloride are inspiration, consumption and cuticular contact ( U.S. EPA, 1994a ) .

INHALATION Benzyl chloride is known to come in the human organic structure by inspiration of contaminated air that already contains bluess of benzyl chloride, skin contact with benzyl chloride or by consuming contaminated H2O. Inhaling air that already has high sums of benzyl chloride has been known to do Burnss, serious respiratory piece of land annoyance, take a breathing abnormalities, damaged lungs, fluid accretion and lungs swelling ( pneumonic hydrops ) and in some state of affairss decease. The cardinal nervous system is besides affected by exposure to immense sums of benzyl chloride with symptoms including concern, giddiness and weariness. INGESTION Studies reveal that consuming benzyl chloride can do harm to digestive piece of land, induce abdominal spasms, sickness, purging, diarrhoea and oral cavity Burnss. Consuming immense sums of benzyl chloride can do harm to the cardinal nervous system and show symptoms near to those exhibited for inspiration when ingested by human existences. DERMAL CONTACT. Benzyl chloride has a caustic impact on the tegument causation Burnss, rubing, vesicating and scaling. Benzyl chloride can do skin annoyance and dermatitis due to its skin-permeating quality ( US EPA, 1993 ) . Contact with the eyes may ensue in lasting oculus harm because it causes oculus redness ensuing in itchiness, irrigating and inflammation of the oculus ( IARC, 1982 ) . ( Sittig, 1991 ) .Dermal exposure or application of benzyl chloride induced tegument tumors harmonizing to one survey carried out on mice. ( XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX )

CARCINOGENICITY OF BENZYL CHLORIDE. The State of California in the United States has determined that benzyl chloride is a carcinogen ( CCR, 1996 ) , nevertheless, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has non designated benzyl chloride in footings of its carcinogenicity but in combination with other chlorinated methylbenzenes and benzoyl saying that exposure to benzyl chloride at normal background degrees is improbable to hold any inauspicious consequence on human wellness ( IARC, 1987a ) . . Establishing benzyl chloride as a cause of malignant neoplastic disease on the human organic structure has non been conclusive. The chief ground for the trouble in set uping benzyl chloride as a carcinogen is that in surveies into most workss and mills where it is produced, the workss besides produce other carcinogenic chemicals in their chemical procedures ( Sakabe et al. 1976 and Sorahan et Al. 1983 ) . Therefore this slowed down efforts to place benzyl chloride as the carcinogen responsible for the instances of malignant neoplastic disease.

Sakabe et Al. ( 1976 ) studied malignant neoplastic disease deceases among the 41 workers in a benzyl chloride production mill in Japan which had 3 malignant neoplastic disease deceases from 4 septic employees from 1954 to 1972. Two of these employees died from lung malignant neoplastic disease much more than the normal ratio expected from this type of work which is 0.06 deliberate harmonizing to the Nipponese national rate for male lung malignant neoplastic disease mortality. The fact that these workers were besides exposed to other carcinogens like toulene, benzal chloride, benzotrichloride, benzoyl chloride and other chlorinated toulenes meant this individual survey could non once and for all ascertain that benzyl chloride was responsible for the high rate of malignant neoplastic disease in the employees.

Therefore, due to the deficiency of coffin nail smoke informations, the little size of the sample mills and the inability to insulate exposure to benzyl chloride from other halogenated mixtures, human informations have been determined to be inconclusive in demoing grounds that malignant neoplastic disease is caused by exposure to benzyl chloride. ( USA EPA, 1999 )

However, carcinogenic consequence has been identified in animate beings ( Fukuda et al. 1981 ) . In rats, malignant neoplastic diseases were discovered in their thyroids while in mice, instances of liver, lung and tummy malignant neoplastic disease were identified ( Coombs 1982b ) . This made benzyl chloride to be classified as a likely human carcinogen by most environmental and occupational wellness organic structures around the universe. In the United States, the United States Environmental Protection Agency ( USEPA ) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ( ACGIH ) have analyzed and classified benzyl chloride and grouped it into class B2, as a suspected human carcinogen by the USEPA and into class A2 by the ACGIH. The European Union groups benzyl chloride into category 3 of carcinogenic substances which are feared to hold carcinogenic effects in worlds.

HUMAN INHALATION LIMIT

Benzyl chloride has an inspiration ague human exposure bound called Reference Exposure Level ( REL ) is 50 Aµg/m3 and a chronic REL of 12 Aµg/m3 by the California Air Pollution Control Officers Association with the respiratory system used for finding the toxicology value ( CAPCOA, 1993 ) set uping a inspiration authority factor of 4.9 ten 10-5 ( microgram per three-dimensional metre ) -1 ( OEHHA, 1994 ) .

Fig. 2 – Health Data from Inhalation Exposurehttp: //www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/benzylchloride.gif Fig 2. LC – Lethal concentration Health Organisation bound ( Source – US EPA )

HUMAN INGESTION LIMIT

The U.S. EPA grouped benzyl chloride into Group B2 which are suspected human carcinogen with an unwritten unit hazard estimation of 4.9 ten 10-6 ( microgram per litre ) -1 this means that malignant neoplastic disease hazard for a individual exposed over a life-time to 1 Aµg/m3 of benzyl chloride is estimated to be no greater than 49 in 1 million ( US EPA 1994a ) . They estimate that persons consuming H2O incorporating benzyl chloride at 0.2 mcgs per litre over his or her full life-time would hold approximately 1 in 1 million increased opportunity of developing malignant neoplastic disease ( U.S. EPA, 1994a ) . The unwritten authority factor that has been used as a footing for regulative action in California is 1.7 ten 10-1 ( milligram per kilogram per twenty-four hours ) -1 ( OEHHA, 1994 ) .However, the International Agency for Research on Cancer do non sort benzyl chloride for carcinogenicity ( IARC, 1987a ) .

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY LIMITS AND ENVIRONMENTAL LIMITS

In the United States, assorted organisations set their ain safety bound sing the safety degree of human exposure to benzyl chloride. Based on conclusive animate being surveies, it was discovered that benzyl chloride ‘s major path for exposure is inspiration.

Benzyl chloride ‘s long term and short term exposure bounds for occupational wellness varies between the United Kingdom and other states. Analysis of informations collected by each state based on their current exposure state of affairs the state may take further hazard appraisal to protect the workplace. The exposure bound in the United Kingdom is half of that in the other states because the UK Health and Safety Executive analyzed the information from the carnal surveies to get at the determination.

Russia, Sweden and Germany have a short-run exposure bound of 5 mg/m3 for exposure in workplace air which is similar to the 5.2 mg/m3 for the United States ( International Labour Office, 1991 ) .

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH LIMITS

As border of safety for indirect exposure is more than 5 ten 105, it is presently considered of low possible hazard for the population via the environment ( UNEP, 1998 ) . The possible environmental distribution of benzyl chloride obtained from a generic fugacity theoretical account ( Mackey level III ) showed the chemical will be distributed chiefly to air and H2O. In Japan, predicted environmental concentration ( PEClocal ) of the chemical was estimated as 1.8 ten 10-3 mg/l from Nipponese local exposure scenario.

The border of safety of benzyl intoxicant for imbibing H2O or fish was calculated as 1.67 ten 106 or 7.41 ten 105, based on no ascertained consequence degree of 100 mg/kg/day. As the border of safety for benzyl intoxicant via indirect exposure is sufficient, it is presently considered of low possible homo hazard. The day-to-day consumption was estimated to be 0.096 mg/kg/day as the worst instance, based on the norm atmosphere concentration.

The day-to-day consumptions through imbibing H2O and fish are estimated as 6.00 ten 10-5 mg/kg/day and 1.35 ten 10-4 mg/kg/day, severally, based on the highest predicted environmental concentration of 1.80 ten 10-3 mg/l. The U.S. EPA estimates that, if an person were to consume H2O incorporating benzyl chloride at 0.2 mcgs per litre over his or her full life-time, that individual would theoretically hold no more than a 1 in 1 million increased opportunity of developing malignant neoplastic disease ( U.S. EPA, 1994a ) .

State

Administration: Description

DESCRIPTION mg/m3

United States

ACGIH TLV – American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists ‘ threshold bound value expressed as a time-weighted norm ; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without inauspicious effects

5.2 ( 1ppm )

United States

AIHA ERPG 1 -American Industrial Hygiene Association ‘s exigency response planning guidelines. ERPG 1 is the maximal airborne concentration below which it is believed about all persons could be exposed up to one hr without sing other than mild transeunt inauspicious wellness effects or comprehending a clearly defined obnoxious olfactory property.

5

( 1 ppm )

United States

AIHA ERPG 2 is the maximal airborne concentration below which it is believed about all persons could be exposed up to one hr without sing or developing irreversible or other serious wellness effects that could impair their abilities to take protective action.

50 ( 10ppm )

United States

NIOSH IDLH – National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health ‘s instantly unsafe to life or wellness concentration ; NIOSH recommended exposure bound to guarantee that a worker can get away from an exposure status that is likely to do decease or immediate or delayed lasting inauspicious wellness effects or prevent flight from the environment.

50 ( 10ppm )

United States

NIOSH REL ceiling – NIOSH ‘s recommended exposure bound ceiling ; the concentration that should non be exceeded at any clip.

5 ( 1 ppm )

United States

OSHA PEL – Occupational Safety and Health Administration ‘s allowable exposure bound expressed as a time-weighted norm ; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without inauspicious consequence averaged over a normal 8-h working day or a 40-h workweek

5 ( 1 ppm )

United Kingdom

HSE – Health and Safety Executive allowable exposure bound expressed as a time-weighted norm ; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without inauspicious consequence averaged over a normal 8-h working day or a 40-h workweek

2.6

( 0.5 ppm )

United Kingdom

HSE – Health and Safety Executive allowable exposure bound expressed as a time-weighted norm ; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without inauspicious consequence averaged over a 15 minute mention period.

7.9

( 1.5 ppm )

Japan

EAJ – Environmental Agency of Japan.

5 ( 1 ppm )

Soviet union

Russia Occupational Health Agency allowable exposure bound expressed as a time-weighted norm ; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without inauspicious consequence averaged over a normal 8-h working day or a 40-h workweek

5 ( 1 ppm )

Germany

Occupational Health Department – allowable exposure bound expressed as a time-weighted norm ; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without inauspicious consequence averaged over a normal 8-h working day or a 40-h workweek

5 ( 1 ppm )

Sverige

Occupational Health Department – allowable exposure bound expressed as a time-weighted norm ; the concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without inauspicious consequence averaged over a normal 8-h working day or a 40-h workweek

5 ( 1 ppm )

Table 1: Screening exposure bound for assorted organisations in different states

CONTROL MEASURES

Benzyl chloride is non a known air pollutant. Air Registration Board conducted a survey but did non happen benzyl chloride in any indoor and out-of-door environment with one exclusion where the average indoor concentration was 0.85 mcgs per three-dimensional metre ( Aµg/m3 ) ( Sheldon et al, 1992 ) . Any release of benzyl chloride is controlled by the UK Pollution, Prevention and Control ( PPC ) Regulations 2000, which implement the EC Directive 96/61on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control ( EPA, 2000 ) . In Canada, benzyl chloride hazard direction requires federal authorities presentment sing alterations in the usage form for benzyl chloride to guarantee the potency for its exposure to the Canadian population is non increased. The Canadian Government added benzyl chloride to the Health Canada Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist, which is an administrative tool to assist makers fulfill the decorative safety commissariats of subdivision 16 of the Food and Drugs Act. The Government has analyzed benzyl chloride ‘s opportunities of let go ofing to the environment as a consequence of an environmental exigency and has added benzyl chloride to the Environmental Emergency Regulations with a proposed threshold of 4500 kilogram set through the Risk Evaluation Framework for subdivisions 199 and 200 of CEPA 1999 ( Environment Canada 2002 ) .

Benzyl chloride is besides monitored by OSPAR Convention which protects the marine environment of the north-east Atlantic Ocean. At normal environmental concentrations benzyl chloride will non do environmental debasement, nevertheless high concentrations from an accidental spill will harm worlds and wildlife.

Accidental Release Control Measures. Small Spill: Absorb chemical with inert substance and dispose suitably Large Spill: . Benzyl chloride is a combustible and caustic liquid hence maintain away from heat and beginnings of ignition. Stop leak if without hazard. Absorb with dry sand or non-combustible stuff. Use H2O spray drape to deviate vapor impetus. Make non let contact with H2O or into cloacas, cellars or confined countries ; dyke if needed. Seek disposal aid.

Personal Protection for Large Spill: . Splash goggles, full suit, vapour inhalator, boots, baseball mitts. A ego contained take a breathing setup should be used to avoid inspiration of the merchandise. Consult specializer. First Aid Measures. Eye Contact: Remove contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with plentifulness of H2O for at least 15 proceedingss. Get medical attending instantly. Skin Contact: Flush tegument with plentifulness of H2O for at least 15 proceedingss while taking contaminated vesture and places. Cover the annoyed tegument with an cream. Wash vesture and clean places before reuse. Wash with a bactericidal soap and cover the contaminated tegument with an anti-bacterial pick. Get medical attending instantly.

Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. If non take a breathing, give unreal respiration ( non mouth to talk or oxygen for serious inspiration move to a safe country, loosen tight vesture such as a neckband, tie, belt or girdle. With take a breathing trouble, give O.

Consumption: Do non bring on purging unless directed by medical professional. Nil by oral cavity.

Storage:

Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated country. Keep container tightly closed and sealed until ready for usage. Avoid all possible beginnings of ignition ( flicker or fire ) .

utilizing informations bases such as scientific discipline direct to happen research documents on the effects of this substance to wellness reflecting on how this research has affected safety bounds.

Compare and contrast wellness and safety bounds with environmental bounds discoursing any fluctuation you find. You should besides be sing bounds from assorted states and non merely the UK comparing them with at least another EU province, other non EU European, USA every bit good as other South American, African or Asiatic states.

See how your chemical can be efficaciously controlled though both pollution control regimes or good as wellness and safety systems.

“ a critical assessment of a chemical jeopardy though research documents ”

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Substance – what is it / what is it used for? ( 10 )

Health consequence – wellness effects, how does it interact with the organic structure, what are the beginnings of research and can they be used to accurately find safe bounds ( 40 )

Limits – Compare and contrast wellness and safety bounds with environmental bounds discoursing any fluctuation you find ( 10 )

Control systems – pollution control regimes / wellness and safety systems. ( 30 )

Reference / presentation ( 10 ) sum