English Literature Essay

in the 20-30 & # 8217 ; s of the XX degree Celsius.

The
century is characterized by great diverseness of artistic values & A ;
methods. This age had a great impact on the literary procedure. Assortment
of societal, ethic & A ; aesthetic attitudes. New accomplishments in
scientific discipline have their impact on literature. Literature absorbs & A ;
transforms the stuff of their influences:

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The
First World War

Russian
Revolution

Freud & # 8217 ; s
depth psychology

Bergson & # 8217 ; s
doctrine of subjective idealism

Einstein & # 8217 ; s
theory of relativity

Existentialists
idea

Economic
crises 1919-1921 & A ; attendant turbulence of societal motion

Marxist
political orientation

Strike
1926

All
these factors lead to literature of societal problematics. There
existed three tendencies: critical pragmatism, get downing of societal pragmatism,
modernism. The authors revolutionized, changed literary signifier, as good
as continued the traditional signifiers. This inter & # 8230 ; is a
typical characteristic of the XX c. English literature reflected
Britain & # 8217 ; s new place in the universe personal businesss. By the terminal of the
Nineteen Victorian tradition began to deteriorate. The desire to emancipate
art & A ; literature from the contents of the Victorian society.
Therefore, unfavorable judgment is the dominant temper in the beginning of the XX degree Celsius.
Criticism took different signifiers. Some of them & # 8211 ; modernist,
others & # 8211 ; religious users. Artist & # 8217 ; s responsibility was to
reflect genuinely ideas of people. Realists in the beginning of the Twenty
& # 8211 ; Hardy, Galsworthy, Shaw, Wells, Conrad, Mansfield, Bennett,
etc.

George
Bernard Shaw ( 1856-1950 )

He
introduced rational drama in the English theater. He was much
influenced by Ibsen. & # 8220 ; In 1889 British phase came into hit
with Norse elephantine Ibsen. He passed as a twister & A ; left nil
but ruin. & # 8221 ; Everybody wanted to make something like Ibsen.
Shaw besides experienced Marx & # 8217 ; s influence particularly & # 8220 ; Das
Kapital & # 8221 ; . The society was in crisis. The article & # 8220 ; The
Quintessence of Ibsentism & # 8221 ; . Here he underlines his belief that
the existent bondage of today is the bondage to thoughts of goodness. Ibsen
was accused of being immoral. But it implies the behavior that doesn & # 8217 ; T
conform to current ideals. The spirit of is invariably outgrowing his
moral ideals & A ; that is why conformance to those ideals green goodss
consequences non less tragic than thoughtless misdemeanor of them. The chief
consequence of Ibsen & # 8217 ; s plays on populace is that his dramas stress the
importance of being ever prepared to move amorally. He insists that
life will, humanistic pick are more of import than abstract jurisprudence,
abstract moral norms. Ibsen: & # 8220 ; The Doll & # 8217 ; s House & # 8221 ; allow
everybody garbage to give. There is no expression how to act.

English
play of the passed old ages was centered on some fanciful event. Ibsen
did non compose about accidents, he wrote about & # 8220 ; piece of
life & # 8221 ; ( life experience ) . He introduced unfastened drama & # 8211 ; a drama
that has no terminal ( if you show a piece of life you evidently have unfastened
drama ) . Shaw objected & # 8220 ; art for art & # 8217 ; s sake & # 8221 ; . It means
merely money & # 8217 ; s interest. Every great creative person has a message to
communicate. His function is to construe life, to make head. All art
is didactic. & # 8220 ;Grief
House
& # 8221 ;
reflects the province of Europe before the war.

George
Herbert Wells ( 1866-1946 )

A
novel was besides developing. In the beginning & # 8211 ; a clip of crisis
for English novel. The XIX theoretical account was non acceptable any more. The
novel of the past old ages developed to depict a societal hierarchy. In
the beginning of the century the dominant belief was that the
Victorian society fell apart. Wells was trying to get away the
traditional novel signifiers. The novel was seen as a means to make
hereafter.

His
talk & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ;The Contemporary
Novel
& # 8221 ; .

Wells
was a really fecund author. He wrote more than 100 books, he is best
known for his scientific discipline fiction. He had a really definite purpose & # 8211 ;
political & A ; societal. He was seeking to unite critical analysis of
present civilisation to the image what it might be in future. He
believed in scientific discipline. But he understood that it can be unsafe
because the power for devastation is immense.

& # 8220 ;The
War of the Worlds
& # 8221 ; . He was
considered utopiographer. To construct utopic they needed to destruct the
relics of the past & # 8211 ; category differentiation ( unenlightenment ) . He
analyzed the feelings of the present in the life of state & # 8217 ; s
hereafter.

& # 8220 ;Ann
Veronica: A Modern Love Story
& # 8221 ;
depicts the job of emancipation. The novel was written as a
reaction to eugenics motion. He affirmed the demand of talented
persons to happen the appropriate forms & A ; the pick must
non be constrained by any societal limitations.

& # 8220 ; Tono-Bungay & # 8221 ;
is a novel about the life of aristocracy in the rural England. It combines
scientific discipline fiction & A ; realistic novel. Bladesover & # 8211 ; a topographic point,
where George Pondervo ( the chief character ) grew up. It becomes a
symbol of dominant influence of the past theoretical accounts of life. The novel is
episodic in signifier, doesn & # 8217 ; Ts have classical construction. Wells was
the first individual who ushered in English literature the subject of doomed
coevals.

& # 8220 ;Mr.
Britling Sees It Through
& # 8221 ; ( 1916 ) was
called by him & # 8220 ; the history of his ain concern & # 8221 ; . The
duty of everyone for the war. It is autobiographical. Tried
to compose about the development of consciousness of his coevalss.
Dressed ores on the interior life of his heroes. Fantasy & A ; world
mingles here. As to the grounds of the war & # 8211 ; he brings his
heroes to the decision that wars are inherited in human nature. He
started as an optimistic progressive but as he lived on he was really
much disappointed.

& # 8220 ;You
Fools
& # 8221 ; is his last word to
humanity.

*
* *

There
are many novels & A ; poesy about war. These authors are known as
& # 8220 ; lost coevals & # 8221 ; authors. The term was introduced by
Gertrude Stein. She uses it metaphorically: old values & A ; beliefs
were lost in the war but unluckily new moral values were non
formed yet. Majority of these authors went through the war
themselves.

This
was a certain inclination in poesy & # 8211 ; Trench poesy. They wrote
about war. Young people who served as soldiers expressed their
call: Wilfred Owen & # 8221 ; Dulce et decorousness est pro patria mori & # 8221 ; ,
Siegfried Sassoon, Isaac Rosenberg. Many of the verse forms have pacificist
character. They were among the first to make the true image of
trench life. They gave instead realistic images, the imagination was
really graphic & A ; appalling, scenes of slaughter, they wrote about the
odor of the cadavers, heavy occupation, gas onslaughts, deceases of immature & A ;
assuring people. They created the image of war as really ugly & A ;
senseless title. Other authors responded to that immense calamity.

The
classical illustration of novel about lost coevals is & # 8220 ;The
Death of a Hero
& # 8221 ; by R. Aldington.

Richard
Aldington ( 1892-1962 )

He
started as a poet near to degeneracy, aestheticism, he belonged to
imagist poets ( formalism ) . He published & # 8220 ;Old
& A ; New Images
& # 8221 ; – his first
aggregation of verse forms. He propagated the philosophy escape & # 8211 ;
motion to get away in to the universe of beauty ( in Ellinism ) from the
ugliness of the universe. This ideal universe was shattered by the WWI. He
came from it another adult male, he broke with imagists & A ; continued to
work in realistic tendency.

In
1929 & # 8220 ;The Death of a Hero& # 8221 ;
was published. The novel was started after the war but had non been
completed until 15 old ages subsequently. It & # 8217 ; s a societal novel unwraping
tragic effect & A ; grounds of war. He made readers see that the
war was inevitable. But the supporter attempts to happen the reply for
the inquiry & # 8211 ; who is responsible for that? Everybody was!
Everybody is guilty for the rivers of spilt human blood. This book is
a call for salvation for the author.

It
is a novel of large generalisation. There are many autobiographical
touches in the book. He starts further in the war to uncloak the
lip service of the English society, respected English households.
Aldington wants to demo that this is a battalion of prevarications that the war is a
baronial title, a redemption. He tries to demo that lies started much
earlier. His ideals are truth & A ; beauty. Aldington says that this
coevals was lost before the war started. War was non the beginning of
the calamity but instead consequence of it.

The life narrative of George Winterborne is given in a
contrary order. We see Winterborne household in which all dealingss are
based on fraudulence & A ; lies. Later we see George at school where he is
supposed to develop into a strong & A ; aggressive person, the
guardian of imperialism. He tries to get away from the influence of
society & A ; turns to art in hunt of his topographic point under the Sun. He
moves to London but among & # 8220 ; rational & # 8221 ; people he found
merely lip service. He is inherently lonely, his thoughts of truth & A ;
beauty are frustrated by prig, who pretended to be leaders of
artistic motion. He sees all their cynicism. In that period of his
London life he still shows his early inclination to defy to
fortunes. He expresses his disenchantment in angry negotiations but he
can non accomplish peace. He remains inactive.

Much is said about his love because love was the lone
seaport for other & # 8220 ; lost coevals & # 8221 ; heroes. It is non so
for G.Winterborne. These dealingss are coloured with cynicism
( realisation of Freud & # 8217 ; s thoughts of free love between George & # 8217 ; s
married woman & A ; her lover ) . When he tried to set these thoughts into
pattern, he faced with changeless wrangles & A ; was finally turned
down by both his adult females. Then the war starts. He volunteers to the
forepart. War becomes a period of his adulthood. He finds himself side by
side with common soldiers & A ; this confrontation with simple people
makes him cognizant of existent human values & # 8211 ; those of bravery,
friendly relationship, support. Nothing can be more cherished than pure trust in
adult male. Life in the trenches makes him believe about life in general & A ;
he started to inquire inquiries. How does it go on that authorities discoveries
immense sum of money to kill Germans in the war but can non happen it to
battle poorness in London. He becomes cognizant of societal contradiction & A ;
hostility. He thought that societal ill will broke through in the
effusion of hate. He still feels really much lonely & amp ; isolated.
He feels that he differs from others, he is really much of an
single psyche. He doesn & # 8217 ; t belong to the soldiers, their
raggedness makes him experience really uncomfortable. He is wholly lost.
With all these jobs he doesn & # 8217 ; t see any manner out but to
end his life by his ain free will ( he commits a self-destruction ) . By
all the narrative Aldington makes us see that this manner is the logical
stoping for the individual who was lost before the war started.

It is a sarcastic book. Aldington was
eager to state the truth about the society openly. But it was
impossible to get the better of individuality, the writer is non nonsubjective, he
shows the whole scope of feelings. That & # 8217 ; s why the terminal of the
book is so acrimonious & A ; hopeless. The rubric itself is really sarcastic.
His decease is besides a symbol how mindless the war is, it & # 8217 ; s merely
a anguish. His sarcasm has many sunglassess, but besides a definite mark & A ;
intent. Sometimes it reminds Swift & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; Gulliver & # 8217 ; s
Travels & # 8221 ;
because of the societal character of sarcasm. & # 8220 ;Death
of a Hero
& # 8221 ;
is an perfectly disillusioned novel. Aldington called this book & # 8220 ; a
wind novel & # 8221 ; . This wind consequence is achieved by kaleidoscopic
alteration of contrasted images. The novel is characterized by battalion
of emotional provinces. The manner is instead nervous. He is easy
overcome by desperation & A ; negation, carried to the really utmost.
These feelings are the characteristics of the lost coevals people. & # 8220 ;The
Death of a Hero
& # 8221 ;
is the first large & A ; most successful of all his plants. His other
novels are:

& # 8220 ;Colonel & # 8217 ; s
Daughter
& # 8221 ;

& # 8220 ;All Men Are Enemies& # 8221 ;

& # 8220 ;Very Heaven& # 8221 ;

All are about those people who came back from the war
alive but still couldn & # 8217 ; t happen their topographic point in life. The chief
characters are kindred to George Winterborne. The critics say that
Aldington preponderantly is the author of one subject & A ; one hero, & A ;
that he merely treats this subject in different facets.

He besides wrote some critical plants on D. H. Lawrence, & A ;
other Hagiographas.

He died in 1962.

Modernism.

The
word & # 8220 ; modern & # 8221 ; means & # 8220 ; up-to-date & # 8221 ; . Critics & A ;
historiographers used it to denote approximately the first half of the Twenty
century. The representatives of this motion were dying to put
themselves apart from the old coevalss. They wholly rejected
their predecessors. The term was suggested by the writers themselves.
The difference between past & A ; present tradition is qualitative.
Modernist authors clearly defined the boundary line between Victorian
age & A ; modernism: in 1910 & # 8211 ; the decease of king Edward & A ;
the first post-impressionist exhibition in London ( Virginia Woolf ) ,
in 1915 & # 8211 ; the first twelvemonth of World War I ( D. H. Lawrence ) . They
had a deep strong belief that modern experience is a alone one. They
tried to indicate the alteration in modernism. This alteration was & # 8211 ;
monolithic disenchantment, devastation of religion in a figure of basic
societal & amp ; moral rules, which laid the foundation of Western
civilisation. This alteration was to some degree rational as the
consequence of late XIX theories & A ; finds.

Karl Marx & # 8220 ;Hyrax
Kapital
& # 8221 ; .
He shaped the imperialistic political orientation, he showed it was non the
form of advancement. He believed that the universe would non be
dominated by enlightened middle class. The battle is inevitable.

Charles Darwin
& # 8220 ;On
Beginning of Speciess
& # 8221 ; ( 1859 )
& A ; & # 8220 ;The
Descent of Man
& # 8221 ; ( 1871 ) .
A human being was placed in the carnal universe. The forces that
determine human behavior are non of mind & A ; ground but is
determined by the demand of physical endurance.

James Frazer & # 8217 ; s
& # 8220 ;The
Golden Bough
& # 8221 ; ( 1890-1915 )
showed similarities between crude & A ; civilized civilizations. The
crude folks appeared to be non so barbarous as they seemed to be.
They were merely like the civilised 1s.

Nietzsche & # 8217 ; s
& # 8220 ;Birth
of Tragedy
& # 8221 ; .
In this book he exposes dark sides of human mind, glorified the
belief in ancient heroic philosophers.

Max Planck & # 8217 ; s
& # 8220 ;Quantum
Theory of Atomic & A ; Subatomic Particles
& # 8221 ; .
This theoretical account of discreet beats of energy behaving in seemingly
unpredictable ways seize the imaginativeness of people so much that they
extrapolated it beyond the bounds of natural philosophies. They believed that
human behavior was besides helter-skelter, disorderly & A ; unpredictable.

Freud & # 8217 ; s
& # 8220 ;Interpretation
of Dream
& # 8221 ; .
This work created a new theoretical account of human personality itself as a
complex, multilayed & amp ; governed by irrational & A ; unconscious
endurance of phantasies.

These theories were in fact non really new they were known
in the Nineteen but in XIX they ne’er destroyed the general rules & A ;
thoughts.

Modern authors after the WWI found themselves in
alleged & # 8220 ; empty universe & # 8221 ; . Their universe was deprived of its
stableness. Nothing can be taken for granted. They didn & # 8217 ; T
believe that life they were populating. Being disillusioned & A ;
contemplating the society & A ; cosmos most of them looked within
themselves for the rules of order. They turned to eternal
things. For that affair we see modern literature being pre-occupied
with its ain ego, procedure of perceptual experience, nature of consciousness. In
its utmost subjectiveness modern literature went parallelly with other
modern humanistic disciplines ( e.g. picture ) .

The chief characteristic & # 8211 ; subjectiveness & A ;
opportunism. Modernist aesthetics was formed under the influence of
Gallic symbolist poets:

Charles
Baudle & # 1098 ; R

Arthur
Rimbaut

Paul
Verlaine

Stephan
Mallarm & # 1081 ;

Their
purpose was to capture the most perishable of personal experience in
open-ended & A ; basically private symbols, to show the
unexpressible, to show the slightest motions of the psyche, or at
least evoke it subtly if non show, make the ambiance of the
psyche. The symbolist concentration upon individual minutes of single
perceptual experience. Life in their reproduction was reduced to little fragments
of experience. This atomization influenced non merely composing of
the work but besides the character. The character was disassembled in
fragmental pieces & A ; these pieces of human character were non
held together by any theory of human type, like a collag & # 1081 ; ,
apposition & # 8211 ; all passages are removed. You merely put the
fragments together. The widely used technique & # 8220 ; watercourse of
consciousness & # 8221 ; takes the signifier from a fluid associations, frequently
unlogical minute to minute sequence of thoughts, feelings & A ;
feelings of a individual head. Traditional literary signifiers & A ; genres
merged & A ; overlapped. The debut of poesy into prose became
possible, imagery feature of poesy & # 8211 ; into prosaic text.
The signifiers of the yesteryear were besides employed but to bring forth the satirical
consequence.

An
every bit of import rule & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ; the watercourse of
unconsciousness & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; the usage of irrational logic of dreams
& A ; phantasies, denies ordinary logic ( & # 8220 ; exhausted
reason & # 8221 ; ) . They employed the shady construction of dream.
The thought & # 8220 ; clip & A ; infinite & # 8221 ; didn & # 8217 ; t exist & amp ; the
imaginativeness was merely somewhat grounded in world but by and large it
created new forms by uniting old experiences, etc.

The
writers employed myth really much as a sort of corporate dream.
Modernist & # 8217 ; s myth was stripped of its spiritual & A ; charming
associations. Joyce & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ;Ulysses& # 8221 ; is
based on the land of Homer & # 8217 ; s & # 8221 ;Odyssey& # 8221 ; .
Eliot said: & # 8220 ; In utilizing the myth, in pull stringsing the combative
analogue between contemporaniety & A ; antiquity Mr. Joyce is
prosecuting the method which others must persue after him. It is merely
a manner of commanding, of telling, of giving a form & A ;
significance to an huge view of futility & A ; anarchy which
is modern-day history & # 8221 ; . Myth is the manner of forming
history. The writers & # 8217 ; quest for order lead to their
preoccupation with the creative person himself & As ; with the artistic
procedure. The fanciful character stood for the writer himself:

Marsel
Proust & # 8220 ;Remembrance of the Things Past& # 8221 ;

Lawrence
& # 8220 ;Sons & A ; Lovers& # 8221 ;

Joyce
& # 8220 ;The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man& # 8221 ;

We can & # 8217 ; T
state that the creative person became modernists & # 8217 ; hero. Not all authors of
that period were modernists. There was the co-existence of different
manners.

James
Joyce ( 1882 & # 8211 ; 1941 )

He
was born in Ireland ( Dublin ) . Although he spent many old ages non in
Ireland he is considered one of Irish authors. Chiefly he wrote
about himself, transforming his experiences in his books, & A ;
relations & A ; friends & # 8211 ; into symbols. His plants are said to
be & # 8220 ; expansive & A ; inclusive & # 8221 ; . Expansive & # 8211 ; because
he gave a really broad view of Dublin life at the bend of the
century, inclusive & # 8211 ; because his plants seemed to include all
the human history. These novels still are the narratives & A ; novels
about life in general.

He
started to go to an expensive private embarkation school but his male parent
became belly-up & A ; he continued his instruction at place. Then he
attended & # 8220 ; University College & # 8221 ; in Dublin. He read really
much & A ; began to compose earnestly. He produced critical articles,
essays but besides poems & A ; notebooks of epiphanies ( theological term
& # 8211 ; an intense minute in a human life when the truth of a individual
or some thing is being revealed ) . He studied in Paris, so returned
to Ireland & A ; in 1904 left it. He lived in different topographic points in
Europe. First, he earned money by giving English lessons. In 1905 he
submitted to the publishing house his first version of the aggregation of
narratives & # 8220 ;Dubliners& # 8221 ; . But it was repeatedly
rejected & amp ; even after credence it was subjected to severe
censoring for sexual candor & A ; usage of lewdnesss & A ; usage of
existent names & A ; topographic points. This aggregation consists of 15 narratives
devoted to childhood, maturate life & A ; public life. All are unified
by the subject of individual & # 8217 ; s solitariness & A ; hopelessness. Joyce
describes life with all realistic inside informations. Everything suggests
that life is dead. All the narratives explore the palsy of Irish
life. The most celebrated narratives are & # 8220 ;Araby& # 8221 ; & A ;
& # 8220 ;The Dead& # 8221 ; . The narratives are arranged in
consecutive sequences & # 8211 ; childhood, adolescence, mature & A ;
public life. Mood is glooming, imagination is dark & A ; malignant. Peoples
are incurably lonely, their hopes are doomed to disappointment & A ;
defeat.

In
the full signifier the aggregation was published in 1914 together with his
autobiographical novel & # 8220 ;The Portrait of the Artist as a
Young Man
& # 8221 ; , which was to be called & # 8220 ; Stephen-Hero & # 8221 ; .
This book explores the narrative of the formation of the creative person & # 8217 ; s
consciousness. In unfavorable judgment it is called & # 8220 ; a gestation of the
psyche & # 8221 ; , for he tries to perforate into people & # 8217 ; s head. It
is profoundly psychological work. In signifier it is & # 8220 ; buildungsroman & # 8221 ;
( German word significance & # 8220 ; educational novel & # 8221 ; ) . Life is shown
chronologically. The chief hero & # 8211 ; Stephen Dedalus. The procedure
of his maturing is shown in the development.

In
the first portion the linguistic communication is really simple. Then some glances of
household life are given. The dissension between its members has
political roots. Another phase is school & A ; college. Stephen does
non take part in boys & # 8217 ; games. He longs for the minute when he
can be entirely, he is weak & A ; enduring. The Jesuit college bred an
antipathy for faith in the immature creative person. Everything was abhorrent
in the college: discourses, system of penalty, religibility +
lip service. It was an anguish experience. Stephen learnt to construct a
wall between him & A ; all the remainder of the humanity.

The
book has an unfastened stoping & # 8211 ; we don & # 8217 ; t know Stephen will make.
It ends with the determination to go forth Ireland. This expatriate, purdah are
the ways in which Stephen opposes to the suppressing influence of the
society. He rejects what life suggests to him & # 8211 ; his pick is
solitariness. The job of correlating of creative persons & A ; society is
solved by Joyce from extremely individualistic point of view. The last
pages express Stephen & # 8217 ; s apprehension of signifier & A ; clip
classs. & # 8220 ; The yesteryear is consumed in the present & A ; the
nowadays is populating because it has force in the hereafter & # 8221 ; . The name
& # 8220 ; Dedalus & # 8221 ; is symbolic. It is a symbol of new art which is
liberated from restrain of old art & # 8230 ;
He discovers & A ; explores the possibilities of new art. Its purpose is
to make a new maze of signifiers of new art.

In
1922 & # 8221 ;Ulysses& # 8221 ; was published. It started as
another short narrative for & # 8220 ; The Dubliners & # 8221 ; but grew into the
monolithic novel. Joyce recreates the action of & # 8220 ; Odyssey & # 8221 ; in
a individual twenty-four hours & # 8211 ; July 16, 1904 ( it was a important twenty-four hours for
Joyce: he decided to go forth Ireland & A ; met his future married woman ) . Since
two fields run parallel. The chief characters are associated with
certain people in & # 8220 ; Odyssey & # 8221 ; by Homer: the chief characters
are Stephen Dedalus & A ; Leopold Bloom, an advertisement canvasser & A ;
in a certain manner an ageless Jew both figuratively & A ; literally.
Minor characters are the people whom they meet in different topographic points.
Dedalus Acts of the Apostless as Telemachys & A ; Leopold Bloom is modern Odyssey & A ;
his married woman Molly is modern Penelope. Bloom wanders from topographic point to put
throughout this twenty-four hours & # 8211 ; butcher & # 8217 ; s store, station office,
graveyard, printing house, library, pub, hotel, once more saloon, store, his
hapless house, inexpensive saloon & # 8230 ; his escapades has nil in common
with escapades of Odyssey. They are down to Earth, petit larceny. In Bloom
Joyce tried to demo roving of & # 8220 ; ageless & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ; . He
has unheroic escapades & A ; eventually meets Stephen who becomes his
religious boy. This is a secret plan.

In
organize the book is largely a ceaseless watercourse of Bloom & # 8217 ; s
consciousness ( he is non an rational individual, his feelings are
really incoherent ) . The book has a really stiff signifier. Joyce describes in
many inside informations every minute of the twenty-four hours: actions, feelings & A ;
ideas. But apart from it Joyce deepens into human consciousness & # 8230 ;
he tries to render something which doesn & # 8217 ; t depend on people & # 8217 ; s
head, he tries to perforate into human mind, urges which govern,
travel them. Each chapter corresponds to the certain episode in Homer & # 8217 ; s
& # 8220 ; Odyssey & # 8221 ; & amp ; each chapter has its ain manner. It
informants that Joyce was a virtuous of the English linguistic communication.
& # 8221 ;Ulysses& # 8221 ; has 18 episodes, each of them
following the workss & A ; the ideas of three people during one twenty-four hours
in Dublin. The book is a mosaic. It consists of different & A ; non
rather linked together parts. There is about no secret plan. Joyce still
puts the thought in it to depict symbolically adult male & # 8217 ; s roving in
the pandemonium of life & A ; drifting with the watercourse of his ideas. The
humanity is lost & A ; confused about all the contradictions of
modern life, people waist their lives in this pandemonium, their being
is sensless & A ; purposeless. The three chief characters present
three ageless types of human existences & # 8211 ; common individual, an creative person,
a adult female. Bloom stands for the symbol of a typical businessperson individual.
He is really limited & A ; content with earthy pleasances.

The
book caused a storm of indignation. It was banned in Britain & A ;
America for more than ten old ages. Now it is praised for proficient
experimentation & A ; stylistic glare. The book attracted
attending to the watercourse of consciousness technique. In general it
evoked controversial responses.

Even
before finishing & # 8220 ; Ulysses & # 8221 ; Joyce wrote & # 8220 ;Finnegan & # 8217 ; s
Wake
& # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; a novel. If & # 8220 ; Ulysses & # 8221 ; is
considered to be a journal, & # 8220 ; Finnegan & # 8217 ; s Wake & # 8221 ; is a
dark book. Joyce tried to show the whole human history in a dream
of a Dublin host Earwicker by name. The manner is appropriate to
a dream, the linguistic communication is switching & A ; altering, the words blur & amp ;
gum together, this suggests the meeting of images in a dream. This
technique enables Joyce to show history & A ; myth as a individual
image. The characters stand for ageless types, identified by
Earwicker himself, his married woman & A ; the three kids.

The
work masks the bound of formal experiment in the linguistic communication.
& # 8220 ; Finnegan & # 8217 ; s Wake & # 8221 ; is considered to be a closed
book. It is really sophisticated. Joyce loses the yarn of narrative
sometimes & # 8230 ; attempted
in the sound of words, building of a sentences, to render the
significance of what he was speaking about ( e.g. images of adult female & A ; the
river are unifying ; the beat & # 8211 ; rippling, fluxing H2O ) . What
unifies these two books & # 8211 ; both of them express Joyce & # 8217 ; s
positive creed: he asserts that life is ageless, human society does
alteration but the alteration has a round character. Everything is
renewed, nil can be destroyed. Joyce starts the work with the
continuance of ideas & A ; the beginning of them is at the terminal.
Man must believe in the metropolis ( symbol of Dublin ) .

Thomas
Stearns Eliot ( 1889 & # 8211 ; 1965 )

Thomas
Stearns Eliot is considered today & # 8217 ; s mastermind in poesy.
Quintessence: refine esthesia & # 8211 ; the indispensable quality of the
poet. & # 8220 ; Our civilisation comprehends great assortment & A ;
complexness ; & A ; this assortment & A ; complexness playing upon a
refined esthesia must bring forth assorted & amp ; complex consequence. The
poet must go more & A ; more comprehensive, more & A ; more
allusive, more indirect in order to coerce, to luxate if necessary
linguistic communication into his significance & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; said Eliot. This is an
history of what a modern poet should make. He must be finely tuned to
the universe to be able to show the assorted & amp ; complex. The poet
can falsify the linguistic communication, to utilize it figuratively.

Highly
was influential figure in literary circles. Editor, poet, dramatist,
critic & # 8211 ; he came from a comfortable American household, his male parent
was a rich maker & A ; his female parent wrote poesy. He was brought
up in St. Louis Missouri. He was educated in private school & A ;
attended Harvard to acquire his grade in doctrine in 1906. Then left
for Paris. There he attended talks of Henry Bergson & # 8211 ;
& # 8220 ; Subjective Idealism Philosophy, Theory of Intuitivism & # 8221 ; .
Bing in Paris he read much on Gallic symbolist poets. The symbolist
motion was one of major influences upon his poesy. The end of art
is to show the alone personal emotional responses to a certain
minute in human life through indefinite unlogical, sometimes private
in significance symbols. Eliot returned to Harvard & A ; there he read
widely in Sanskrit & A ; oriental doctrine ( had a powerful
influence on him ) . In 1915 he decided to give up doctrine to stay
in England & A ; to get down author & # 8217 ; s calling. In 1916 he completed
his Ph.D. theses, but ne’er received a grade. He married & A ;
settled in England for good.

The
beginning of his literary calling starts from 1910 when he wrote & # 8220 ;The
Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
& # 8221 ; . It was published in
1915 in magazine & # 8220 ; Poetry & # 8221 ; . The verse form is written in a really
simple manner. Then he made a aggregation & # 8220 ;Prufrock & A ;
Other Observations
& # 8221 ; . This was compared with & # 8220 ; Lyrical
Ballads & # 8221 ; of Wordsworth & A ; Coleridge. This work inaugurated
the age of modernism in poesy. There is no secret plan in the narrative. It & # 8217 ; s
a dramatic soliloquy but of the new sort. It sounds like a watercourse of
consciousness of a individual who walks up the street of London. The
supporter is Alfred Prufrock. He is an antiromantic hero, instead
cautious, egoistic. The tone is really dry, images are startlingly
fresh. The rubric suggests that some feeling should be shown to the
other individual. The verse form starts as a duologue:

Let
us go out & # 8211 ; you & amp ; I & # 8230 ;

Critics
argue that you & amp ; I are two sides of one & A ; the same individual.
Eliot says that & # 8220 ; YOU & # 8221 ; is a comrade of Prufrock. We
should pay attending to the epigraph: & # 8220 ; The truth will stay
under & # 8221 ; . This means that the talker can carry himself to
talk merely if this will ne’er be heard. It is his ain dramatic
soliloquy. Prufrock is intensely preoccupied with himself. Probably
he marks his love vocal to himself & # 8230 ; ( though it doesn & # 8217 ; T
matter much )

We
can understand & # 8220 ; love-song & # 8221 ; in dry sense because the
whole verse form is an luxuriant rationalisation for non seeking love. Love
can non be in this ugly mindless helter-skelter universe. It is a miracle,
hopeless longing of individual for the verve. The whole scene makes
us see that love is non genitive in this universe. Abhorrent attitude
of the storyteller towards what he sees & # 8211 ; images of a brace of
ragged claws, mermaids singing each to each. Leitmotiv:

& # 1042 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ;
& # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ;

& # 1041 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ;
& # 1086 ; & # 1052 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; .

It
agencies that they talk of what they pretend to cognize.

The
verse form is full of allusions. The epigraph is rather of import, taken
from Dante & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; The Divine Comedy & # 8221 ; . The terminal of verse form
is pessimistic. It is one of the most apprehensible of his verse forms.

& # 8220 ;The
Waste Land
& # 8221 ; ( the verse form ( 1922 ) in & # 8221 ; Dial & # 8221 ; & A ;
& # 8220 ; Criteria & # 8221 ; [ GB ] ) . The verse form consists of 5 parts & A ; their
rubrics speak for themselves:

& # 8220 ; The
Burial of the Dead & # 8221 ;

& # 8220 ; A
Game of Chess & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; an allusion of a mediaeval drama,
where the action was as if in two playings.

& # 8220 ; The
Fire Sermon & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; the posits of oriental faith.

& # 8220 ; The
Death by the Water & # 8221 ;

& # 8220 ; What
the Thunder Said & # 8221 ;

In
footings of signifiers the verse form is a montage of fragments of memories,
overheard conversations, citations put together merely by the implied
nowadays of a reasonable individual ( = a refined esthesia = a modern
poet ) , upon whom all these complexibilities & A ; assortments of homo
universe are hipped & amp ; who staggers under the load of them. We can
state that the head of the poet is to a great extent packed with cultural
tradition. A poem abounds in extremely sophisticated allusions:

& # 8220 ; The
Tempest & # 8221 ;

Anthropological
history of & # 8220 ;Grail& # 8221 ; ( & # 8220 ; & # 1043 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 8221 ; )
fable & # 8211 ; a fable connected with Christianity & # 8211 ; a cup
from which Christ drank ;

from
& # 8220 ; The Divine Comedy & # 8221 ; ;

alluded
& A ; used words from operas of Wagner ;

refers
to the narrative of crusification ;

utilizations
Gallic symbolists ;

as good
as garbages of popular civilization & # 8211 ; music-hall vocals, slang words,
modern-day manner ;

He
hips everything together. This bits & A ; pieces are set into a
matrix of fluxing watercourse of consciousness of a adult male. The dramatic
portrayal of a individual head becomes the portrayal of an age. Eliot
provided 52 notes for & # 8220 ; The Waste Land & # 8221 ; when it was foremost
published. The verse form was opposed violently but there were besides
supporters. They said that Eliot gave a definite description of their
age. Now footings & # 8220 ; lost coevals & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; post-war
disenchantment & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; wind age & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; waste land & # 8221 ;
are used parallelly For many modern-day authors & A ; critics & # 8220 ; The
Waste Land & # 8221 ; was a definite description of the age. Civilization
was deceasing. Critics regarded it as the disenchantment of a
coevals. Eliot protested against that. The term & # 8220 ; waste land & # 8221 ;
is used in literature alongside with the term & # 8220 ; lost
coevals & # 8221 ; .

He
besides employed the myth of deceasing & A ; resuscitating king & # 8211 ; what the
verse form expresses is the demand of redemption & A ; this is expressed in 3
Sanskrit words ( give, sympathise & amp ; control ) . There are many
brutalities in the verse form.

In
1925 he published another verse form in the same key. & # 8220 ;The
Hollow Man
& # 8221 ; develops the major subjects & A ; images of
& # 8220 ; The Waste Land & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; jobs of religious bleakness,
the job of loss of religion in modern-day coevals. The verse form is
a set of recurrent symbols. The significance depends on cumulative consequence
of the single images. The thought of religious asepsis in the
image of Hollow Man & # 8211 ; monstrous imitation of adult male, their
behavior is mimicry of human activity. The verse form is really short. It is
easy read but non so easy understood. There are 5 parts in the
verse form. Other images & # 8211 ; Death of the Kingdom. The life of the
Hollow Man & # 8211 ; is more shady & A ; less existent than the life
beyond the grave. Religion is substituted by simple rites devoid of
all true feelings & A ; emotions. The end-of-the-world ( revelatory )
motivation is really strong in the verse form. The image is really pessimistic.
The verse form ends hopelessly:

This
is the manner the universe ends,

Not
with a knock but a whine & # 8230 ;

Eliot & # 8217 ; s development after & # 8220 ; The Waste Land & # 8221 ;
was in the way of literary, political, spiritual conservativism.
Classicist in literature, monarchist in political relations & A ; Anglo-Saxon in
faith he developed more composed lyrical manner.

His
mature chef-d’oeuvre is & # 8220 ;Four Fours& # 8221 ;
( 1944 ) which is based on the poetic memories of certain vicinities of
America & A ; Britain. This is a starting point for his probing in
the enigma of clip, history, infinity, the significance of life. It deals
with one individual inquiry of what significance in our lives are
enraptured intense minutes when we seem to get away clip & A ; glances
of supra-ordinary world ( it resembles Joyce & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; Epiphanies & # 8221 ; .
There are two epigraphs that give hints to the reply. The epigraphs
are really of import.

The
foremost comes from Heroclitus. It contrasts the general wisdom of the
race with minutes of private single penetration. It shows the dualism
of single being. First of all individualism is apart of a
organic structure of world, located in history & A ; tradition. Second, it is
a alone personality. Each individual embraces both & A ; this
predetermines the reaction to intense minutes.

The
2nd is short & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ; The manner up & A ; the manner down are one
& A ; the same & # 8221 ; . This is another dichotomy, two ways of
groking the truth. The first 1 is an active embracing of
enraptured experience ( the manner up ) , the 2nd 1 is a inactive
backdown from experience into ego ( the manner down ) .

The
verse form got a repute of a great obscureness due to a philosophical
profusion but at the same clip it is intensely musical. He tries to
do it closer to music by the motivations that return like the tones in
music. It is non by opportunity that the verse form is called & # 8220 ; Four
Quartets & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; 4 instrumental voices in the four. In his
essay & # 8220 ;The Music of Poetry& # 8221 ; he explained
this use of perennial things.

From
1926 he experimented with poetic play & # 8220 ;The Cocktail
Party
& # 8221 ; . But his play remain unpopular because play
demands secret plan.

Eliot
received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1949 as acknowledgment of his
inventions in modern poesy. He besides wrote critical plants & # 8220 ;The
Sacred Wood
& # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ;The Use of Poetry & A ; the
Use of Criticism
& # 8221 ; ,& # 8220 ;On Poetry
& A ; Poets
& # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; most influential literary
paperss.

David
Herbert Lawrence ( 1885-1930 )

Lawrence
was really much influenced by Freud & # 8217 ; s construct of human
personality. He is considered to be a modernist but he didn & # 8217 ; T
experiment with signifier. On the exterior he worked within the confines of
English fresh tradition but he broke from the apprehension of human
dealingss that were accepted in critical pragmatism. He was the first
who touched upon the job of marrying, the dealingss between
sexes, he didn & # 8217 ; t hush down the contradictions between them. His
chief concern was to emancipate a individual from all the constrains which
were put by the society upon him. There was so much tabu, hush-hush
attitudes to this subject, that & # 8230 ;

He
is compared to Eliot. Both started from similar points that
civilisation threatens human existences, it is hostile to adult male.
Civilization is ill, it destroys people morally & A ; bodily. What
Lawrence can propose alternatively? His faith was belief in blood & A ;
flesh as being wiser than the mind. This belief became one of
his chief subjects. He interpreted human behavior & A ; character from
this point of view. All his Hagiographas were underlined with a deep
discontent with a modern universe. And this fact unites him with other
modernists. Civilization is on the incorrect path. Science,
industrialisation produced a race of automatons. Civilization is evil.
The lone manner out & # 8211 ; the manner back & # 8211 ; to re-awaken our
emotional, irrational beds of consciousness. He was small
concerned with societal jobs. Lawrence & # 8217 ; s intervention of
character is based on the premise that 7/8 are submerged & A ;
ne’er seen. He explored the unconscious head that was non ever seen
but was ever present. He is groping for the words to depict
purely indefinable. He enjoyed popularity in his life-time. His
foremost plants are:

& # 8220 ;Th

vitamin E
White Peacock & # 8221 ; 1911White Peacock” 1911

& # 8220 ;Sons
& A ; Lovers
& # 8221 ; 1913

They
were good received. Critics thought that there appeared one more
propertyless author. His late plants were received with daze & A ;
resistance because of his candor to the inquiries of gender,
dealingss of work forces & A ; adult females. These subjects suffered from late
Victorian primness. He was the first to depict sexual dealingss
utilizing common words non & # 8230 ;

& # 8220 ;Sons
& A ; Lovers
& # 8221 ; is considered to be autobiographical.
Lawrence was brought up in miner & # 8217 ; s household in Nottinghamshire.
His female parent was cultivated ex-school instructor. She married beneath
herself & A ; so she tried to develop aspirations in her kids. The
book centres around Paul Morel & A ; his female parent & # 8217 ; s dealingss.
His female parent made him fatally unable to love another adult female. & # 8220 ; There
was something in his life that blocked his intentions. & # 8221 ; The
dealingss that he explores within the Morel household remind us of the
dealingss in his ain household. He must acquire it clear & A ; acquire away with
it. By giving this narrative a signifier of a fresh Lawrence tried to emancipate
himself of his ties with the yesteryear. Sometimes it is considered an
illustration of Freud & # 8217 ; s theory of Oedipus composite.

We
see Lawrence a modernist non because of his inventions in signifier
& A ; manner but by his attitude to human existences ( human behavior is
biologically determined ) . & # 8220 ; Blood & A ; flesh being wiser than
mind & # 8221 ; .

Lawrence
is a really fecund author but his books were uneven in quality & # 8211 ;
15 novels & A ; volumes of short narratives. The best of them are:

& # 8220 ;The
Rainbow
& # 8221 ; ( was besides condemned as obscene one )

& # 8220 ;Womans
in Love
& # 8221 ; 1920

& # 8220 ;Kangaroo& # 8221 ;
1923

& # 8220 ;The
Plumed Serpent
& # 8221 ; 1926

& # 8220 ;Lady
Chatterley & # 8217 ; s Lover
& # 8221 ; ( 1929 ) was subjected to
lewdness test. It was banned for oscine vocabulary boulder clay 1960. & # 8220 ; His
urgency in seeking out the deepest nucleus of his characters & # 8217 ;
being lead him to use a linguistic communication overfraught with prodigious
vocabulary & # 8211 ; repeatedly, ineffectually gesticulating at dark,
mysterious, passionate, but finally obscure & A ; ungraspable emotions. & # 8221 ;
Critics considered this work to be his greatest one.

Sexual
facet wasn & # 8217 ; t the lone one though really of import. It was a portion
of his construct of personal development.

American
Modernism.

It
appeared in the first decennary of the Twenty when the group of poets
appeared in the USA who tried to convey modernists & # 8217 ; thoughts. The
most active of these poets were Ezra Pound & A ; Thomas Eliot.
American modernism doesn & # 8217 ; t intend geographical footings. Many
American authors created their plants in Europe ( chiefly in Paris ) .
Ezra Pound said: & # 8220 ; Paris is a lab of thoughts & # 8221 ; . Modernists:

Ezra
Pound

Gertrude
Beer mug

John
Dos Passos

Ernest Hemingway

Partially
William Faulkner

Francis Scott Fitzgerald

Ezra
Pound ( 1885 & # 8211 ; 1972 )

A
celebrated poet, publicizer & A ; transcriber. He studied in the University
of Pennsylvania ( studied Roman languages ) . But he had a really brief
calling as a instructor & A ; in 1908 he left for Europe. He walked all
the manner from Gibraltar to Venice where the first aggregation of his
verse forms appeared & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ;A Hume Spento& # 8221 ; .
During 2 old ages from 1908 he gained his popularity. His aggregations
were:

& # 8220 ;Canzoni& # 8221 ;
& # 8211 ; vocals

& # 8220 ;Rejoinders& # 8221 ;
& # 8211 ; leisure

& # 8220 ;Lustra& # 8221 ;
& # 8211 ; visible radiation

The verse form
impressed the readers by the original signifier, new expressiveness & A ;
metrical cabal. He is the laminitis of imagist & # 8217 ; s school
( opposed traditional Victorian poetry ) . The poets & # 8217 ; purpose was to be
precise & A ; clear in word use. They did non accept thematic
restrictions, were responsible for detonating the traditional signifier,
tried to happen signifier to replace it. There was a tendency in imagism & # 8211 ;
wordism & # 8211 ; the theoretical account for the XXth century poesy. Its
characteristics:

Mechanistism

Technisism

Specific
rime

Much
attending was paid to the metaphorical images. These thoughts influenced
immature poets like Robert Frost, Thomas Eliot, and W. Butler.

Pound
edited magazine & # 8220 ; Little Review & # 8221 ; where new names & A ;
plants were introduced. It is believed that he revolutionized English
versification. He tried to capture the modulation of monological
address. His verse forms have a curious signifier of masks. His poesy is
dressed in the bright apparels of Latin, Greek, Nipponese, Anglo-Saxon,
etc poets.

Translations
are the best portion of his bequest. They were besides exhaustively polished
masks. He developed involvement Nipponese poesy. He liked the Nipponese
manner of showing the most abstract thought through a concrete image. So
he introduced idiomatic poesy when any state could be rendered
through the combination of concrete images. This rule was
employed in & # 8220 ;The Cantos& # 8221 ; epic verse form, which
he started in 1925 & A ; continued about up to the terminal of his life.
He called it & # 8220 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ;
& # 1089 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ;
& # 1092 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1084 ; & # 8221 ; . The synthesis of his
thoughts of plants, autobiography, aesthetic & A ; poetic rules & A ;
contemplation of the pressing & A ; poetic issues. & # 8220 ;The
Cantos
& # 8221 ; are uneven in quality. Some fragments are
hard to understand. To ease the procedure of reading & # 8220 ;The
Index of Cantos
& # 8221 ; was published. In 1925 Pound moved to
Italy & A ; became interested in political relations & A ; economic sciences. He devoted
much clip & A ; attempt to discourse economic sciences & A ; political relations.

& # 8220 ;The
ABC of ECONOMICS
& # 8221 ;

& # 8220 ;What
Is Money For?
& # 8221 ;

He supported
the fascist government. After the war he was arrested & A ; charged in
prison, but was considered to hold mental disease & A ; spent 22
old ages in mental infirmary. In late 50 & # 8217 ; s he was let free & A ;
went to Italy where he died. But he continued to compose even in
infirmary. & # 8220 ;The Cantos of Pizza& # 8221 ; is a really
painful reevaluation of the things passed. The celebrated critic Malison
said: & # 8220 ; He chose a incorrect place above the society & A ; that & # 8217 ; s
the job & # 8221 ; . He was the poet who transformed the signifier of
English poetry & # 8211 ; therefore his accomplishment was great.

Gertrude
Stein ( 1874-1946 )

Gertrude
Stein is remembered because of her influence on the authors to come,
non for her plants. She doesn & # 8217 ; t enter anthologies of English or
American literature. She was born in USA, her childhood was spent in
Europe. She studied psychological science in Harvard. Her instructor was William
James. She conducted several experiments on automatic authorship but she
was interested merely from psychological point of position. However, she
did non go a psychologist yet this influenced her authorship. In
1903 & # 8217 ; s she left for Paris & A ; remained there about all her
life. In 1909 she published the novel & # 8220 ;The Three Lifes& # 8221 ; .
It consists of three parts depicting the lives of three adult females. The
work was unnoticed in that clip. But that clip she got acquainted
with celebrated creative persons: Picasso, Matisse. New inclinations in painting
( cubism, abstract art ) impressed her really much.

Abstraction
inclinations dominated in her artistic plant. She claimed that merely
Spanish & A ; American authors were able to recognize abstract impressions
in literature. This abstraction must be expressed by the malformation of
the signifier. She was the lone representative of literary abstract art.
Her desire was to acquire rid of the content of words ( of the significance ) so
that she could be able to concentrate on the plastic belongingss of
the linguistic communication & A ; its sentence structure. She was traveling to capture interior & A ;
outer world in the most precise & A ; nonsubjective signifier.

Literature
must non wake up any associations: associatory emotions are invalid.
Everything that is the consequence of emotions can non be the effect of
literary work, can non be stuff for prose & A ; poesy. They must
consist in the precise rendition of internal & A ; external world.
The words must show the world straight, she tried to devoid them
of any significance. But she forgot that the painter & A ; the author usage
different media for their humanistic disciplines. But if colorss have no intending the
words evidently possess it. She wanted to make pure literature by
utilizing pure words, no 1 else tried to make that before. She emptied
the words of the idea & A ; created about her private linguistic communication & A ;
that was the extreme. It showed how far 1 could travel in go againsting the
linguistic communication.

Another
freshness & # 8211 ; the new construct of clip. She tried a new method of
narrative & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ; uninterrupted nowadays & # 8221 ; . Alternatively of the
narrative she creates a composing where a narrative is presented as if
go oning at the present minute, non as a attendant flowering of the
subject as we perceive reading. She did admit that such a
class as clip in literature would transform into uninterrupted
perceptual experience of the present minute. So she tried to set this theory
into pattern in her book & # 8220 ; The Making of Americans & # 8221 ; .

In
& # 8220 ;The Making of America& # 8221 ; depicting the
history of the Gestland
household she tries at the same clip to give a image of American
history. She tried to depict single & A ; general
at the same time. And that resulted in the manner, which was really
awkward. She besides tried to utilize the technique that she borrowed from
filming, like in a movie each following shooting presents a little
fluctuation from the old 1. Each following sentence differed from the
old one merely insignificantly ( regularly-repeated phrases, key
words ) . It may look pathetic, stupid, but many modern authors took
this repeat from her.

Another
side the alleged portrayals in literature were created on the footing
of rhythmic rule. Every individual has his ain beat & A ; in
portraying a individual & # 8217 ; s life she tried to unite & amp ; fit
these rhythms & # 8211 ; literary expressionism. The consequence of this was
simplification of sentence structure, highlighting
of the verbs, minimum punctuation & A ; skip of nouns & A ;
adjectives. & # 8220 ;Tender Buttons& # 8221 ; is a
aggregation of verse forms, illustrations of this technique. The reaction was non
consentaneous. They accused the manner for deintellectualization. For
illustration, Malcolm Kowly said
that & # 8220 ; reading her manner annoys us & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ; . Stein & # 8217 ; s
experiments are non so of import by itself because they warned other
creative persons against taking the same path. Her plants are bootless & A ;
senseless & # 8211 ; they distract the communicating. But her
experiments are noticeable in Hemingway & # 8217 ; s sentence structure, Faulkner & # 8217 ; s
& # 8220 ; uninterrupted nowadays & # 8221 ; ( =past does be in the present ) ,
Sherwood Anderson & # 8217 ; s rules of filming. Her
significance & # 8211 ; she was the first English author who expressed
those inclinations which were the typical characteristics of the
daring motion.

John
Doss Passos ( 1896-1970 )

He
was born in Chicago. He lived a long life but his most productive
period was in the 20-30 & # 8217 ; s of the XXth century. He
reflected the progressive thoughts of the clip, produced the heroic poem of
American life within the model of a literary experiments. He
graduated from Harvard. In 1916-17 studied architecture in Spain & A ;
this background can be felt in his plants in their architecture.
Participated in the war & A ; after that he began to compose. His first
book & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ;One Man & # 8217 ; s Initiation& # 8221 ; ( 1920 ) .
It was the first book in American literature, which treats the war
subject. It is a lost coevals book because it was motivated by
post-was disenchantment that immature people experienced. The poignancy is
clearly antiwar. It is autobiographical. The pacificist motivations are
really strong here. The manner doesn & # 8217 ; t differ much from that of
his mature works. Dos Passos chose the fragmental manner of
organisation of stuff, which is to his head, more expressive. The
book is in the signifier of interior soliloquy & # 8211 ; to show more
exactly the clang of a immature American universe in the war.

He
continued the same technique in & # 8220 ;Three Soldiers& # 8221 ; .
He attacks the corruptness of the universe, socialist motivations become more
explicit in his work. Here he experiments with composing technique & # 8211 ;
secret plan. The lives of three immature people & # 8211 ; Americans & # 8211 ; are
in the focal point of his attending. At first their lives are connected,
they met each other on the same boat but this is the lone point where
their destinies are near. As they arrive in Europe their ways diverge.
Each one follows his ain way. The secret plan decenters, follows the life
of each of three heroes. All of them are ruined at the war, experience
lost, disillusioned. It is a typical lost coevals novel written in
the modernist technique. John Andrews is a painter, he dreams to
show his protest against the war by artistic agencies. Both J.
Andrews in the book & A ; J. D. Passos fear capitalist dictatorship & A ;
radical enthusiasm. Antibourgeois poignancy is instead strong.

These
inclinations addition in his following plant. & # 8220 ;Manhattan
Transportation
& # 8221 ; ( novel ) is a kaleidoscope of legion
episodes, names, day of the months where the reader can barely happen the
characters. It consists of independent narratives, which are all assorted.
The lone similar characteristic is the topographic point & A ; the clip. Dos Passos
considered that such composing will enable him to demo the world
objectively, a watercourse of New York life. Fictional characters represent
different societal beds. The writer introduces clips from newspapers,
some glances of literature, which are non connected with the novel.
It produces upset. But it was his purpose & # 8211 ; metropolis is a
pandemonium ; life is a pandemonium. Chemical reaction to the novel was contradictory. Some
idea that it was a leftist novel. Dos Passos was non in the
single lives, problems or joys. A collectivized author was
interested in societal dealingss but the paradox was that societal
dealingss were abstract from his work. He didn & # 8217 ; t dispose
societal. His attitude to the events is non clear. The deficiency of
nonsubjective decisions was knowing but the author can & # 8217 ; Ts do
that. He tried to bring forth such plants where the generalisation should
be.

He
was popular in 20-30 & # 8217 ; s in Soviet Union, unluckily his
popularity was ephemeral for political grounds. Equally shortly as he began
to knock & amp ; warn against dictatorship he fell out of grace.
He lived through the economic crises of 1929 & A ; this found its
look in the novel & # 8220 ; USA & # 8221 ; .

Department of state
Passos wrote & # 8220 ;USA& # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; a large heroic poem where
he paid more attending to generalisation. He wrote it for 20 old ages.
It consists of 3 novels: & # 8220 ;The 42 Parallel& # 8221 ; ,
& # 8220 ;1919& # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ;The Big Money& # 8221 ; .
Dos Passos tried to be more precise with the composing, developed a
strategy of it. It is a large bird’s-eye work. The existent hero is American
society, the state. It is shown against the societal background of
the state. It is an heroic poem of American life. The construction is really
logical & A ; coherent. Each chapter falls into several parts, which
are made up of for constituents & A ; the combination of these
constituents is really different. These four constituents are:

novel –
the portrayals of literary characters

lifes
of historical personalities

news-reel,
i.e. intelligence of the twenty-four hours

camera
obscure ( oculus ) & # 8211 ; interior soliloquy of the writer

Each piece
has a rubric & A ; a figure. The lifes of historical personality
were intended to make the historical background, dedicated to
celebrated people of political, societal, scientific, artistic activities.
It included the narratives about the outstanding people.

Newss
of the twenty-four hours was to documentarize the specific minutes in the USA
history to make the historical coloring & A ; nonsubjective image of
that era. It included popular vocals, headlines from documents. Here
they try to follow the watercourse of consciousness of the newspaper
reader.

Camera
obscure were to demo the writer & # 8217 ; s attitude to life, to convey an
single lyrical touch to the narrative, personal speculations upon
certain topics, reminiscences of