Highest Double Bond In Monounsaturated Fat Biology Essay

The undertaking is fundamentally about the probe to find which oil contains the highest dual bond in monounsaturated fat and the effects towards the bar texture. Experiment was done to find the sum of I value by ciphering dual bond in each oil. Then, a farther experiment is done, which is named mustard seed displacement experiment. The bars, which have been baked utilizing the different types of oils as the chief fats are pressed to its highest compaction province, so, the reading is obtained. Based on the consequence obtained, ruddy thenar oil has the highest I value, 32.21, which means that it contain the highest sum of dual bond. Olive oil has the 2nd highest I value, 26.53, and palm oil has the lowest I value, 21.09. This clearly shows that ruddy thenar oil has the highest monounsaturated fat contain. The oils are used to do bars. The bars are brought to Malayan Palm Oil Board ( MPOB ) to prove the bars on their ability to be compressed. The bar which can be compressed the highest is ruddy palm oil bar, followed by olive oil bar and eventually by palm oil bar. Red palm oil bar shows that is has the highest air contain therefore it can be compressed the most. Red palm oil records the lowest specific denseness reading, which is 548.3 milliliter. it shows that ruddy thenar oil bar can be compressed the highest, whereas olive oil bar shows the 2nd highest reading of 630.0 milliliter and palm oil bar shows the highest reading of all bars, which is 656.6 milliliter. The blend oil bar shows a reading of 651.6 milliliter. This shows that palm oil bar is the hardest to be compressed.

Research Question: Does the figure of dual bond in monounsaturated fat in the Raoiella Indica Hirst ( ruddy thenar oil ) , Olea Europea ( olive oil ) and Elaeis Guineensis Jacq ( palm oil ) and its blend affect the weight and specific volume of bar?

Introduction:

Malaysia state is blessed with tropical, humid clime. This suited temperature makes workss, such as thenar oils, ruddy thenar oils to turn secara banyak in Malaysia. Besides, Malaysia is among the highest exporter of palm oil in the universe. There are two types of thenar oils, viz. palm oil and ruddy thenar oil.

Oils exist as a liquid signifier at room temperature. Example of oils are ruddy palm oil, thenar oil and olive oil. Oils contain at least one carbon-carbon dual bonds ( C=C ) and most works oils contain more than one carbon-carbon two-base hit bond which is called as polyunsaturated. Fats and oils are synthesized by organic structure mechanism by enzyme lipase, which turns fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerin. Glycerol and fatty acids subsequently in bend undergo a series of redox reaction, that turns it into C dioxide and energy. Fats and oils besides fundamentally contain double the sum of energy compared to saccharides. Hence, fats and oils are used chiefly in nutrient production such as bars, ice picks and cocoas. These nutrients when consumed can supply instant energy due to its ability to bring forth high contain of energy when it is synthesized by organic structure system.

The sum of unsaturation of oils can be determined by titrating with iodine solution. One mol of I molecule will respond with 1 mol of carbon-to-carbon dual bond in the oils. As throughout the procedure of iodine solution being added to the fat solution, the violet coloring material of the I will slowly slice and at the terminal point, the I coloring material will vanish, go forthing the fats solution to be white in coloring material as to bespeak that add-on reaction has taken topographic point. What add-on reaction? Explain more? Iodine figure can be used to cipher the figure of gms of I that need to be added by 100 g of fats or oils.

Besides that, the grade of unsaturation can be determined in order to cognize the sum of dual bonds that the oils has. The higher the grade of unsaturation, it means that it contain higher sum of carbon-to-carbon dual bonds. Hence, it can be said that the grade of unsaturation of oils is straight relative to the sum of carbon-to-carbon dual bonds. This is another method to find the sum of dual bonds contained in an oil without executing an experiment.

Besides that, the higher the sum of dual bond content, the longer the length of wavelength absorbed. Actually, the coloring material that is reflected or viewed is non the coloring material absorbed, but it is the complementary coloring material of the coloring material absorbed. For case, in ruddy thenar oil, the coloring material reflected is ruddy coloring material. The coloring material absorbed is green coloring material. It can be seen that ruddy thenar oil, which has a ruddy coloring material of wavelength 625-740 absorb bluish green part of the spectrum. Cyan has a wavelength of 500-520 nanometer. Palm oil, which is light yellow in coloring material has a wavelength of 565-590 nanometer. Olive oil, which is green in coloring material. It can be seen that ruddy thenar oil absorb the longest wavelength compared to olive oil and thenar oil. It shows that the higher the grade of unsaturation of oil, the longer the wavelength of coloring material it absorb, therefore the darker the coloring material of the oil.

Specific volume is blab La bla and explicate about the bars it will produced.

It is estimated that a higher specific volume bars will be lower in weight. This is because their higher inclination to pin down air atom as it has a batch of air pouch

Presently, in nutrient industry, palm oil is the chief beginning of fat in baking bars. Palm oil undergone hydrogenation procedure, which is one signifier of add-on reaction. In this procedure, H is added to the olefine ( palm oil ) in the presence of nickel accelerator of temperature about 180 a?°C. Hydrogenation reaction will do the thenar oil to be saturated as now, all the C atoms have four H atoms attached to it and is called as saturated, which is now called as thenar oil fat or commercially is called as oleo. Margarine is solid in room temperature compared to handle oil which is liquid in room temperature.

Red thenar oil are fundamentally is produced from rough thenar oil which the deacidification and deodorization are carried out utilizing milder conditions, which is able to keep the high sum of carotenoids, compared to conventional refinement procedure that are being used in the production of processed thenar oil. The conventional method has destroyed most of the carotenoids contained in the palm oil.

Red thenar oil has the highest contain of provitamin As compared to other oils such as palm oil and olive oil. Carotenoids, which is the precursor of vitamin A is critical for every procedures that occur in human system. Vitamin A is important in forestalling dark sightlessness

Structure 1 and construction 2 below shows the construction of carotenoids. Carotenids consist of alpha provitamin A and beta provitamin A. Structure 1 shows the construction of alpha provitamin A and construction 2 shows the construction of beta provitamin A.Carotenes consist of lone C and H. Alpha provitamin As and Beta provitamin As are different in footings the place of the dual bonds. As we can see that the dual bond in alpha provitamin A is situated at the 2nd C whereas for beta provitamin A, the dual bond is situated at the 3rd C.

Structure 1: Shows the construction of alpha provitamin A

Structure 2: Shows the construction of beta provitamin A

B provitamin As are more common compared to a provitamin As in nutrient. Alpha provitamin As and beta provitamin As are synthesized by workss. Normally, when fruits and veggies appear orange reddish, it indicates that the nutrient contains more Beta provitamin As than Alpha provitamin As. Beta provitamin As contain twice the sum of vitamin A1 than Alpha provitamin As. In add-on to that, if palm oil were to be compared to other natural beginning carotenoids, palm oil contains 15 times more vitamin A1s and 300 times more than tomatoes. Therefore, it can be said that palm oil contain higher sum of vitamin A compared to other natural nutrient. However, in world, most of carotenoids in palm oil are destroyed during refinement procedure, the procedure to do the thenar oil igniter.

Besides, most of veggies oils contain high denseness lipoproteins, ( HDL ) cholesterin. Olea Europea can increase the degree of HDL and lowers the lower denseness lipoproteins ( LDL ) cholesterin. Olea Europea is a natural juice which preserves the gustatory sensation, olfactory property, vitamins and belongingss of the olive fruit. Olea Europea is clearly one of the good oils, one of the healing fats. High-density lipoproteins can cut down the hazard of cardiovascular disease as HDL can take the cholesterin from the arterias and transport it back to the liver. Most people do rather good with it since it does non upset the critical Z 6 to omega 3 ratio and most of the fatty acids in Olea Europea are really an omega-9 oil which is monounsaturated-unsaturated fats are healthy fats. Omega 6 to omega 3 ratio should be in a smaller proportion. A higher ratio can take to breast malignant neoplastic disease disease and besides inspissating of blood that lead to blood coagulum. The good wellness effects of Olea Europea are due to both its high content of monounsaturated fatty acids and its high content of antioxidative substances. Surveies have shown that Olea Europea offers protection against bosom disease by commanding LDL ( “ bad ” ) cholesterin degrees while raising HDL ( the “ good ” cholesterin ) degrees. LDL cholesterin can go around around the organic structure and construct plaques and coagulums around bosom vass which in bends can take to bosom onslaught. Therefore for wellness ground, more people are now utilizing olive oil as their chief oil in cookery.

Besides that, in footings of absorbtion of wavelength colorss, the higher the sum of dual bond content, the longer the length of wavelength absorbed. Actually, the coloring material that is reflected or viewed is non the coloring material absorbed, but it is the complementary coloring material of the coloring material absorbed. For case, in ruddy thenar oil, the coloring material reflected is ruddy coloring material. The coloring material absorbed is green coloring material. It can be seen that ruddy thenar oil, which has a ruddy coloring material of wavelength 625-740 absorb bluish green part of the spectrum. Cyan has a wavelength of 500-520 nanometer. Palm oil, which is light yellow in coloring material has a wavelength of 565-590 nanometer. Olive oil, which is green in coloring material. It can be seen that ruddy thenar oil absorb the longest wavelength compared to olive oil and thenar oil. It shows that the higher the grade of unsaturation of oil, the longer the wavelength of coloring material it absorb, therefore the darker the coloring material of the oil.

Therefore, I would wish to analyze on the consequence of dual bond in monounsaturated fat in ruddy thenar oil, thenar oil and olive oil and besides the blend of ruddy thenar oil, thenar oil and olive oil in bring forthing softer, and damp bar. It is known that the higher the iodine value ( no of dual bond ) , the higher the grade of unsaturated. The higher the grade of unsaturated, the more wet the bar. besides, by uniting all the three oils, a better texture bar and last longer coat can be produced.

Purpose of experiment

The intent of the experiment is to detect whether different types of oils, which contain different degree of unsaturated has consequence towards the bars baked with the oils. For these intents, an experiment to find the I value is and besides the experiment to find the specific denseness of the bars are conducted. The iodine value can find the sum of dual bond content in the oils used. After the I value has been obtained, the oils that are used severally so used as the chief fat to do bars. The bar so compressed to their highest bound to acquire their bars specific denseness.

Hypothesis

1.1

The higher the iodine value, the higher the grade of unsaturated of fat. This is because higher I value indicates that it contains higher sum of dual bond.

1.2

The higher the iodine value contain in oil can do the bar produced from the oil to hold lower weight when being measured.

1.3

The higher the iodine value contain in an oil can do the bar produced from the oil to hold higher specific volume.

Variables:

2.1

Table 1: shows the variables in finding iodine value in different type of oils

Variables

Possible Effect ( s ) on consequence

Wayss to command

Mugwump

Types of oils used

Dependant

Volume of Na thiosulphate used

Controlled Variables

Volume of oil used

The volume of each oils, viz. ruddy thenar oil, thenar oil and olive oil should be kept changeless for each experiment. If the volume of oils used are non changeless, the consequence, which is the iodine value will non be accurate.

Hence, for each experiment, the volume of oil used should be fixed, which is 6.0 cmA? . the oils are measured utilizing a 10.0cmA? syringe.

Volume of Wij ‘s solution used

Volume of Wij ‘s solution used should be accurate and fixed in each experiment. If the volume used is non fixed, the I value used can non be accurately determined.

To guarantee an accurate I value is obtained, the volume of Wij ‘s solution used should be fixed, which is merely 25 cmA? . The Wij ‘s solution is measured utilizing a 25 cmA? pipette.

Volume of Potassium Iodide used

Volume of K iodide used should be fixed. If the volume of the K iodide used is non changeless in every test, therefore iodine value that need to be calculated will non be accurate.

To guarantee the same volume of K iodide in every experiment, K iodide is measured utilizing mensurating cylinder to acquire an accurate reading of 20 cmA? for every test.

Volume of Carbon Tetrachloride used

Volume of C tetrachloride used must be consistent in every test in the I value experiment.

To keep the consistence of the volume of C tetrachloride used, which is merely 15 cmA? in every test, a 15 milliliter pipette is used for this intent.

Volume of distilled H2O used

Distilled H2O, which acts as the dissolver in the I value experiment should be maintained its usage volume in every test so that the truth of the iodine value can be obtained.

To guarantee an accurate I value, 150 cmA? of distilled H2O is used for each test. The distilled H2O is measured utilizing a 200 cmA? beaker.

Specific Volume Experiment

2.2

Variables:

Table 8: Shows the variables for specific denseness of the bars

Variables

Unit of measurements

Mugwump

Types of oil used

Dependant

Specific denseness of bars

cmA?gA?A?

Materials and Apparatus:

Table 3: Shows list of stuffs for iodine value trial for Red thenar oil, Palm oil, Olive oil

No.

Materials

Measure

Volume/ Size

1

Red thenar Oil

3

8 cmA?

2

Olive Oil

3

8 cmA?

Palm oil

3

8 cmA?

3

Carbon Tetrachloride

9

15 cmA?

4

Wij ‘s solution

9

25 cmA?

5

Potassium Iodide

9

One reagent bottle

6

Distilled Water

1

One reagent bottle

7

Sodium Thiosulphate

9

Two reagent bottle

8

Starch Indicator Solution

9

1-2 milliliter

Table 4: Shows list of setup for iodine value trial for Red thenar oil, Palm oil, Olive oil and its blend

No

Apparatus

Measure

Volume/Size

1

Conic flask

4

50 cmA?

2

Burette

1

Standard size

3

Beaker

3

50 cmA?

4

Beaker

1

200 cmA?

4

Dropper

2

Standard size

5

Measuring cylinder

4

25 cmA?

6

Weighing balance

1

Standard size

7

Volumetric flask

2

100 cmA?

8

Conic Flask

3

Standard size

9

Pipet

1

Standard size

10

Retort base and clinch

1

Standard size

Method

Methods to fix wij ‘s solution:

0.2 N wij ‘s solution is prepared by iodine monochloride and glacial acetic acid by adding iodine monochloride and glacial acetic acid by 2:3 ratio.

Methods to fix the blend of the oils

Mix 2 cmA? of ruddy thenar oil, 2 cmA? of palm oil and 2 cmA? of olive oil in a little beaker. The ratio of oils is 1: 1: 1.

Weigh 6.0 g of ruddy thenar oil was weighed utilizing beam balance and was put in a 250 milliliter flask. Then, 15 milliliter of C tetrachloride was put in the flask. Next, 25 milliliter of Wij ‘s solution were added. After all the three solution has been added, the solution were assorted good. The flask so was closed with stopper and subsequently were kept in dark closet for 1 about 1 hr. After 1 hr, 20 milliliter of K iodide was added to the conelike flask followed by the adding of 150 milliliter of distilled H2O into the flask. After the solution has been mixed good together, the mixture was the titrated with 50 milliliters sodium thiosulphate with changeless and vigorous agitating until the xanthous coloring material about disappear. After that, 1-2 beads of amylum index solution was added to the conelike flask and the titration was continued until the bluish coloring material disappears. Stairss 1 to 7 were repeated utilizing olive oil and thenar oil and its blend. The iodine value were calculated by utilizing the undermentioned expression,

1V= 12.69N ( B-S ) W

Where

IV is the I value

N is the exact concentration of Na thiosulphate

B is the volume in milliliter, of Na thiosulphate used for the clean trial

S is the volume in milliliter, of Na thiosulphate used for the oil sample

W is the sample weight in gm

The I value is so tabulated in tabular array and compared.

Colour measurement experiment:

Apparatus and Material:

Apparatus

Table 5: Shows the list of setup used in the experiment of finding the coloring material of different types of oils

No.

Apparatus

Measure

Volume/ Size

1

Colormeter

1

Standard size

Materials:

Table 6: Shows the list of stuffs used in the experiment of finding the coloring material of different types of oils

No.

Materials

Measure

Volume/ Size

1

Red Palm oil sample

3

30 cmA?

2

Palm oil sample

3

30 cmA?

3

Olive oil sample

3

30 cmA?

Method

Red thenar oil was put in a little cylindrical regular hexahedron to be measured utilizing calorimeter to look into its elation and darkness. Then, the reading of the tintometer is noted. Following, was stairss 1 to 2 were repeated utilizing palm oil and olive oil.

Preparation for making the bar

All the ingredients that are needed to do the bar hitter. The bar hitter is so baked for approximately 45 proceedingss in oven at 180 a?°C. After the bar has been baked, it is so cooled and stored in a container. The bars are made with 100 % ruddy thenar oil, 100 % palm oil and 100 % olive oil.

The ingredients are as follow: –

Table 7 Shows the ingredients in doing the bars for specific denseness experiment

Ingredients

Sum

Flour

100 g

Fat

75 g

Sugar

100 g

Egg

2

Baking pulverization

5 g

Baking sodium carbonate

5 g

Cinnamon pulverization

2.5 g

Salt

2 g

Apparatus:

Table 9: Shows the list of setup used in the experiment of finding the specific volume of bars used

No.

Apparatus

Measure

Volume/ Size

1

Volumeter

1

Standard size

Materials:

Table 10: Shows the list of stuffs used in the experiment of finding the specific volume of bars

No.

Materials

Measure

Volume/ Size

1

Red Palm Oil Cake

1

5 inch

2

Olive Oil Cake

1

5 inch

3

Palm Oil Cake

1

5 inch

4

The Blend Sample Cake

1

5 inch

Cake Specific Volume Test

Red thenar oil was used as the chief fat in baking a bar. The bar was adust one twenty-four hours utilizing seed supplanting technique. The volumeter was calibrated utilizing a block of wood with standard volume of 500 cmA? . Following, the bar was placed in a volumeter. A knobe was pulled to let the mustard seed to skid down and make full the null infinite at the bottom part of the volumeter. The bar was so compressed to its maximal bound by utilizing mustard seed supplanting technique. When the bar has been compressed to it maximal bound, the reading was recorded. After that, steps 1 to 4 were repeated utilizing palm oil bar and olive oil bars. The concluding tallness of the bars were tabulated in a tabular array.

Data aggregation:

Table 11 Shows the reading of Na thiosulphate used to titrate the fat solution

Sample

Initial reading of Na thiosulphate, 0.05 cmA?

Concluding reading of Na thiosulphate, 0.05 centimeter

Trial 1

Trial 2

Blank trial

0.00

14.05

14.04

Red thenar oil

0.00

37.31

37.75

Palm oil

0.00

41.69

41.60

Olive oil

0.00

38.76

38.50

The combination

0.00

39.42

39.64

Table 12 shows the weight in mass of bars

Sample

Mass of bars, 0.0001 g

Trial 1

Trial 2

Red thenar oil

230.2

230.2

Palm oil

287.4

282.4

Olive oil

241.6

241.6

The combination

264.3

265.1

Table 13 Shows the value for specific volume of the bars

Sample

Reading of volumeter, milliliter

Trial 1

Trial 2

Red thenar oil

550

550

Palm oil

660

650

Olive oil

630

630

The blend

650

650

Datas Processing

To cipher the mean volume of Na thiosulphate used to titrate the fat solution

Average reading = Trial 1 + Trial 2 + Trial 3

3

For illustration, to cipher the mean volume of Na thiosulphate used to titrate ruddy thenar oil,

= 37.31 + 37.75 + 36.98

3

= 37.35 cmA?

To cipher the mean mass for the bars tested

The equation is applied,

Average mass ( gms ) = Trial 1 + Trial 2 + Trial 3

3

For illustration, to cipher the mean mass for ruddy thenar oil bar,

= 230.2 + 230.2 + 225.9

3

= 228.77 gms

To cipher the mean specific volume of bars produced by the oils used

The equation is applied,

Average specific volume ( milliliter ) = Trial 1 + Trial 2 + Trial 3

3

For illustration, to cipher the mean specific volume for ruddy thenar oil bar,

= 550.0 + 550.0 +545.0

3

= 548.3 milliliter

The I value experiment

The expression used to happen the iodine value:

IV = ( 12.69 N ( B-S ) ) / W

Where,

IV is the I value

N is the concentration of Na thiosulphate, N2S2O7, in mol dmA?A?

B is the volume of, in milliliter of Na thiosulphate used for the clean trial

S is the volume, in milliliter of Na thiosulphate used for the fat/ oil sample

W is the sample weight in gm

To prove I value for Red Palm Oil

B, initial volume of Na thiosulphate used = 0 milliliter

S, volume of Na thiosulphate used for clean trial = 14.05

W, weight of ruddy thenar oil used = 0.6000 gm,

To find the I value in Blank Test

IV = 12.69 ( B-S ) /W

12.69 0.1 ( 50.00-14.05 )

0.6

= 76.03

To find the I value for ruddy thenar oil

12.69 0.1 ( 50.00-37.34 )

0.6

= 26.78

The figure of grades of unsaturation can be determined from the molecular expression utilizing the undermentioned equation,

Degree of unsaturation = [ ( figure of Cs ) + 2 ] aˆ• figure of Hs

2

By utilizing the equation, the figure of grades of unsaturation can be determined for any hydrocarbon whose molecular expression known. For illustration, to find the figure of grades of unsaturation in the expression of palm oil, C55H95O6, the expression is so applied. The greater the grade of unsaturation, the lower is the runing point of the fat or oil. The dual bonds in unsaturated fatty acids are in cis construction.

Palm oil = [ ( 55 2 ) + 2 ] aˆ• 95

2

= 5 grade

To happen the grade of unsaturation of ruddy thenar oil, C40H5602

Red thenar oil = [ ( 40 2 ) + 2 ] 56

2

= 13 grade

To happen the grade of unsaturation of olive oil, J10 C9 H12 Na2,

The grade of unsaturation,

[ ( 9 2 ) + 2 ] aˆ•12

2

= 4 grade

Calculation for uncertainness

Uncertainty of conelike flask = 5.00 cmA?

Uncertainty of burette = 0.05 cmA?

Uncertainty of mensurating cylinder = 0.05 cmA?

Uncertainty of weighing balance = 0.0001 g

Calculation of uncertainnesss

R = x I value

Where

V1 = volume of solution in conelike flask

V2 = volume of Na thiosulphate used for titration

V3 = volume of solution in mensurating cylinder

V4 = mass of oils used

Entire uncertainnesss for ruddy thenar oil for I value

= + + + 26.78

= 13.48

Table 14 shows the mean volume of Na thiosulphate

Sample

Volume of Na thiosulphate, 0.05 centimeter

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Control

14.05

14.04

14.05

Red thenar oil

37.31

37.75

36.98

Palm oil

41.69

41.60

41.70

Olive oil

38.76

38.50

38.43

The blend

39.42

39.64

39.71

Table 15 shows the mean mass for the bars produced

Sample

Mass of bars, gms ( g )

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Red thenar oil

230.2

230.2

225.9

Palm oil

287.4

282.4

287.4

Olive oil

241.6

241.6

241.6

The combination

264.3

265.1

264.4

Table 16 shows the mean reading for the specific volume of the bars produced

Sample

Reading of volumeter, milliliter

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Red thenar oil

550

550

545

Palm oil

660

650

660

Olive oil

630

630

630

The blend

650

650

655

Table 17 shows the entire uncertainnesss for iodine value experiement

Types of oils

Entire uncertainnesss for iodine value,

Blank trial

22.45

Red thenar oil

13.48

Palm oil

8.88

Olive oil

12.18

The combination

11.08

Table: Shows the per centum mistake for iodine value and its per centum mistake

Table 18 shows the iodine value and the entire uncertainnesss

Sample

Iodine Value

Entire uncertainnesss,

Blank trial

76.03

38.26

Red thenar oil

26.78

13.48

Palm oil

17.64

8.88

Olive oil

24.20

12.18

The combination

22.02

11.08

Discussion

The grade of unsaturated of oil can be expressed by I value ( IV ) , which is based on the sum of I absorbed by fat on 100 grams footing. The higher the iodine value, the higher the grade of unsaturated. Unsaturated is the status when there are presence of carbon-carbon, C= C dual bond. The iodine value for palm oil, ruddy oil, olive oil and its blend is presented in table 1. Red thenar oil has the highest I value, which is 32.31. Olive oil has the 2nd highest I value, which is 26.53, whereas its blend records the 3rd highest iodine value of 26.42 and palm oil has the least IV value of 21.09, which is the lowest of all oils. Higher sum of iodine value is due to add-on of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturation fatty acid is when there are more than one carbon-carbon dual bond is present in a fat. The clean trial is used as a control experiment, which is to cognize the iodine value without the presence of oils.

Red thenar oil has the highest iodine value. It is because it contain the highest figure of unsaturation of fatty acid. “ The higher the iodine figure, the more unsaturated fatty acid bonds are present in a fat ” . Unsaturated fatty acid is when dual bond is present and H atom is eliminated. Alkene are compounds that contain carbon-carbon dual bonds. Alkenes are said to be saturated hydrocarbons because these molecules are saturated with H. It is important to cognize the figure of grade of unsaturation to cognize how many dual bonds are present in a compound. The greater the figure of dual bonds in a lipoid, the greater the sum of I that adds to 100 gms of it. The grade of unsaturation in a molecule are linear. A molecule with one dual bond has one grade of unsaturation, whereas a molecule with two dual bonds has two grade of unsaturation. Merely as the formation of a dual bond causes two H to be lost, the formation of pealing besides consequences in the loss of two Hs, therefore, every ring in the molecule besides adds one extra grade of unsaturation. For every three-base hit bond, two grades of unsaturation are added to the molecule. The figure of grades of unsaturation can be determined from the molecular expression utilizing the undermentioned equation,

The specific bar volumes of the three bars, viz. ruddy thenar oil bar, palm oil bar and olive bar were tested. All the informations are presented in table 3 below. Red palm oil bar has the highest specific volume. This shows that ruddy thenar oil bar can be compressed more than palm oil bar and olive oil bar. the higher the specific volume reading, the more the bar can be compressed, hence the more softer the bar is.

Chemical belongingss of the oils shows that ruddy thenar oil has the highest iodine value. It shows that ruddy thenar oil has higher sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Olive oil and thenar oil have lower I value than ruddy palm oil. Red thenar oil besides has the highest ‘R ‘ value, which are 70. It shows that ruddy thenar oil has the most ruddy coloring material as it contains a high degree of provitamin As. Higher values of provitamin As give darker coloring material in ruddy thenar oil. Olive oil has the highest value of ‘L ‘ which is 60, indicates it has the lightest coloring material. Palm oil has the highest value of ‘Y ‘ which is, 50 indicates that it has the highest value of yellowness.

Red thenar oil bars records the lowest mean mass, which is 228.8 gms. The olive oil bar has the 2nd highest mean mass of 241.6 gms. The blend oil bar records the 3rd highest mean mass reading of 264.6 gms while palm oil bar has the highest mean mass, which is 285.7 gm. This clearly shows that, although the ingredients used to do the bars are the same, but the capacity of the bars to hive away air, hence doing the bar igniter in mass is different. Red thenar oil has the highest inclination to hive away air while thenar oil has the lowest inclination to hive away air.

Based on the consequence obtained, it can be stated that the blend of the oils which contain ruddy thenar oil, thenar oil and olive oil in a 1: 1: 1 ratio is the best in bring forthing bar. This is because the blend has a high contain of carotenoids, beginning of vitamin A, which largely obtained from ruddy thenar oil. Besides that, the bars that is baked utilizing the oil blend contain a high degree of HDL cholesterin, which is good for wellness as its inclination to cut down the degree of bad cholesterin by 35 % and increase the degree of good fat by about 15 % . Besides, the blend besides has higher runing point compared to oils such as olive oils and ruddy thenar oil. This make the blend suited for bring forthing bars for commercial valufromes. High contain of carotenoids besides make the bars can be stored longer in a icebox by keeping its original coloring material.

In footings of the gustatory sensation, of all 30 pupils from Kolej Mara Banting, which has age of 19 old ages, 25 pupils agree that the bar that is made by utilizing the blend oil has the highest rated. Harmonizing to them, the texture of the bar is non excessively oily like ruddy thenar oil bar does. In add-on to that, handle oil bar has the worst rated bar among all the bars that being surveyed. This is because due the bar is difficult and dry. Olive oil bar has the 3rd most preferred bar. The bar has the odor of olive and most of the pupils do non like that sort of gustatory sensation.

For the centripetal trial, all the 30 campaigners chosen were given 5 cmA? 5 cmA? size bar sample, which is ruddy palm oil bar, plam oil bar, olive oil bar and oil blend bar. Among the constituents that being tested is the coloring material, appereance, softness, greasiness, spirit and overall. There are six classs, which is 1 for hapless, 2 for carnival, 3 for impersonal, 4 for good, 5 for really good and 6 for excellence. For ruddy thenar oil bar, most of the campaigners agree to rate the coloring material, appereance, while the softness is 6. Red palm oil bar is the most greasy bars of all, which is rated 2 by bulk of the campaigners. For the spirit, 4 is the bulk of the campaigners agree with. For palm oil bar, which is the least bar favoured by the pupils, is bulk being rated 3 by the campaigners except for greasiness ad softness is 4. Olive oil bars records a bulk of evaluation 3 besides except for softness is 4 and spirit is 2. The oil blend bar has bulk evaluation of 4 except for softness and spirit are 5. The overall evaluation for ruddy thenar oil bar is 5, palm oil bar is 3, olive oil bar is 3 and intermix oil bar is 6. This shows that most of the campaigners prefer blend oil bar compared to other bars.

Texture frequently plays of import function in finding bar qualities. One frequently justice nutrient based on the texture. Texture is defined as the typical physical composing or construction of something, particularly with regard to the size, form, and agreement of its parts. Human senses, viz. sense of gustatory sensation and sense of touch are the chief factors in impacting human perceptual experience. Texture in nutrient is besides being defined by some researches. One of the research workers province that “ texture is the centripetal and functional manifestation of the structural, mechanical and surface belongingss of nutrients detected through the sense of vision, hearing, touch and kinaesthetic ” ( Szczesniak 2002 ) .

The texture of the bar is measured in term of the hardness value. The higher the force needed to compact the bar to half of its original value, the higher the hardness value. The relation between the force needed to compact the bar with the hardness value is straight relative. Besides, the higher the hardness value, the lower the specific denseness of the bar. this is because, as the lower the specific denseness of the bar, the lower the bar capacity to hive away air in the bar, therefore the bar becomes harder to press. Therefore the relation of hardness of bar with the bar specific denseness is reciprocally relative.

It can be seen that ruddy thenar oil bar has the highest specific volume, which means a less compact bar compared to handle oil bar and olive oil bar. Red palm oil bar has specific denseness of 548.3 milliliter, which is the lowest reading for specific denseness. Red palm oil bar has the highest inclination shop air and it is easier to compact the bar, therefore the hardness value of ruddy thenar oil bar is the lowest. Olive oil bar has the 2nd highest specific denseness, which is 630 milliliter. Olive oil bar has the 2nd highest hardness value. On the other manus, thenar oil bar has the lowest specific denseness value of 550 milliliter and the highest hardness value. The blend of the oils records the 3rd highest specific denseness reading, which is 651.6 milliliter.

The oil samples were poured into glass tubings and placed in the instrument holder. The coloring material of the samples was measured utilizing colourmeter. Colour samples are expressed in footings of L*- elation, R*- inflammation, G*- verdancy and Y*-yellowness. Graph 1 shows the ‘L ‘ , ‘R ‘ and ‘Y ‘ value of the oil samples and their blends. The ‘L ‘ value indicates lightness, the higher the value, the lighter the coloring material. As for ‘R ‘ , it indicates inflammation, the higher the value of ‘R ‘ , the more ruddy the coloring material is. ‘G ‘ indicates greenness, the higher the value of ‘G ‘ , the greener the coloring material. ‘Y ‘ indicates yellowness, the higher the value of ‘R ‘ , the more xanthous the coloring material is. Red thenar oil has the highest ‘R ‘ value, which is 70. Red thenar oil has the highest Roentgen value because of high content of provitamin As. Higher content of provitamin A will ensue in more ruddy coloring material of oil. Olive oil has the highest value of ‘L ‘ . Olive oil has the lightest coloring material.