Individual critical-reflection report Essay


Analysis ( Object-oriented ) analysis is the name for all activities in the model of a package development procedure that serve finding, elucidation, and description of the demands towards the system ( that is, elucidation of what the system is supposed to execute ) .

Analysis of a system depends on assorted activities which are carried out in the analyzing procedure. These activities are carried out in a parallel mode which can non be represented here, but I have tried to utilize all the activities and their description in order.

The development of a system begins by placing the basic aim and “system idea.” What is the system intended to accomplish? Normally, you start with nil more than obscure thoughts and visions, looks of purpose and naif wants. Explicate the system thought in composing on about half a page – merely the act of composing this down sets in gesture the procedure of end designation and concretization.

Idea of the system

In Dodge motor gross revenues company, vehicle test-drives, buying, and charge are to be supported by an information system. The new system should supply all maps straight related to managing clients. These include client information, direction of nucleus informations ( references, bank inside informations, and so on ) , reserves, vehicle inside informations, and client charge.

Identifying Primary holders


  1. Identify the stakeholders.
  2. Identify the undertaking contact spouses.
  3. A Divide the contact spouses into sphere experts, people responsible for the demands on the system, and people affected by the system.

Identify the primary holders. Even before finding the demands on the system to be created, you should first seek to happen out who might be puting these demands on the system. In this regard you should seek to place all the involved parties who will be straight or indirectly affected by the system ( or undertaking ) to be developed or by whom the system ( or undertaking ) will be affected.

Primary holders might be, for illustration:

  1. Users of the system ;
  2. Technical section ;
  3. Accounts section ;
  4. Clients, fiscal angels, direction, board of managers ;
  5. Legislators, criterions ;

Identifying Business Procedures

  1. Identify the concern processes that the system is to back up or in which it is integrated
  2. Visualize the system thought with the assistance of a usage instance diagram.
  3. Describe, every bit abstractly as possible, the basic domain-specific histrions or the histrions
  4. involved in the concern procedure.
  5. A Describe the identified concern procedures in abstract footings, utilizing an activity diagram in each instance.

A concern procedure is a combination of organizationally potentially distributed, but technically related activities needed to treat a commercial event ( for illustration a concrete application signifier ) in a result-oriented manner. The activities of a concern procedure are normally chronologically and logically related to each other. A commercial event is normally triggered by an event ( for illustration reception of an application signifier ) and has at least one seeable domain-specific consequence ( e.g. a contract ) .

In contrast to a concern procedure, a usage instance ever describes a chronologically uninterrupted interaction of one or more histrions with a system. A concern procedure can therefore consist of a set of usage instances. In which concern procedures is the system to be integrated, or which concern processes must it back up? Which histrions are involved in it? These inquiries must now be answered at the most abstract degree possible. In many instances the system thought can supply of import hints, so that this measure can besides be seen as a visual image and organisation of the system thought. Business procedures are marked as usage instances with the stereotype A«workflow A» .

Identifying Business Use Cases


  1. Identify the concern usage instances.
  2. Identify the start and terminal of usage instances with the assistance of triggers and consequences.
  3. Identify the concern usage instances to be excluded.

Identify the concern usage instances

A usage instance describes in natural linguistic communication a consistent, goal-oriented, chronologically uninterrupted sequence of activities ( by and large ) of an histrion, which produces a consequence of domain-specific value seeable to the histrion.

We use the term “business usage case” ( or “business case” for short ) to denominate

an abstract signifier of usage instance that is independent of the concrete possibilities and demands for its ( IT-related ) execution. Take, for illustration, the concern usage instance Book Appointment. This can really be implemented in several ways, e.g. Reserve vehicle by phone, Reserve vehicle on the Internet, Reserve vehicle on site. These concrete usage instances really likely hold different procedures, demands, and other inside informations, so should be described individually. We are non concerned with that merely yet, we want merely to acquire an overview of the usage instances and non yet think about how they can be implemented in pattern. We should hence take the most general and abstract names possible for concern usage instances. A usage instance describes the coveted external system behaviour from the point of position of the user and therefore the demands that the system should carry through. It is a description of what the system must make, non of how it should make it. The size or range of a usage instance can be specified comparatively exactly. A usage instance should depict what a user does at a peculiar clip on an application system ( e.g. a reserve system ) to reason a commercial event ( e.g. the reserve of a Lincoln for Mr. Smith ) within a concern procedure.

Identify the triggers and consequences of the usage instances

You must make this so that you can accurately find where they start and where they end. If you can non happen any clear indicants of this, it is likely that you have non yet gone into the domain-specific context in sufficient deepness. For each concern instance you should include the undermentioned inside informations:

  1. Name ;
  2. Basic Flow ( 1-20 lines of free text ) ;
  3. Actor ( s ) ;
  4. Gun trigger ;
  5. Result ( s ) .

Where does a usage instance start and where does it stop?

This can by and large be defined rather clearly. At the start there is ever a commercial trigger, a commercial event. For illustration, a client would wish to reason a contract. Or a client would wish some information. Or the selling section would wish a statistical rating of reserves. On the other manus, activities such as Enter client figure, Save contract, and so forth are non commercial triggers but stairss in a usage instance. If a client figure is used to happen ( place ) a client in the system that is surely a consequence, but it does non yet have any commercial value – something still needs to be done with this client. Possibly they will be contacted by telephone to clear up a peculiar state of affairs, or they might be sent a missive – searching for the client is merely an intermediate measure in.A usage instance describes a procedure. A usage instance diagram, nevertheless, is non a procedure description. A usage instance diagram does non specify any procedure sequence, etc. There are other ways of making this, e.g. activity diagrams.

Describing the Kernel of Use Cases


  1. A Identify and depict the commercial kernel of all concern usage instances, i.e. the existent commercial purposes in abstract, technology-independent footings.
  2. Divide the demands into “probably stable” and “probably variable.”
  3. A For each concern usage instance specify the trigger, stipulations, and incoming information.
  4. For each concern usage instance define the consequences, postconditions, and surpassing information.
  5. With each usage instance describe merely a individual coherent domain-specific state of affairs, i.e. if necessary divide them up and utilize A«includeA» and A«extendA» relationships to unlink them.

Before usage instances are concretized and detailed in footings of their content, it is of import to work out the existent concern intent in each instance. Many inside informations which come to visible radiation subsequently relate to really concrete basic conditions and technological worlds. From a long-run position, these are seldom stable.

Identifying System Use Cases


  1. Identify the concrete system usage instances.
  2. If applicable, specify abstract system usage instances.

In the old subdivision we looked at some kernel descriptions of usage instances that described the nucleus of a concern procedure in a short, abstract signifier. As we did so, we did non concern ourselves with any concrete basic conditions, inside informations, or proficient facets. In this subdivision we shall return to these indispensable usage instances and expression at them in more concrete footings. We shall now see the concrete conditions and demands, plus those originating from the proficient architecture. A individual concern instance will frequently bring forth several concrete system usage instances. A system usage instance, moreover, should depict merely those procedures that can be mapped on a individual technically relevant system unit ( e.g. hardware ) , i.e. processes that relate to more than one system or that run in portion on bing external systems should be broken down into several system usage instances.

We shall utilize the Book Appointment usage instance as an illustration. This abstract description will now be compared with the concrete concern world, which yields three concrete instances:

  1. A vehicle can be reserved by telephone via a call centre.
  2. A vehicle can be reserved on site at a rental location.
  3. A vehicle can be reserved straight by the client over the Internet

Identifying Business Classs


  1. Identify the most of import domain-specific objects, see them as categories, and pattern their structural connexions in a category diagram.
  2. A Give the categories meaningful names, name their associations and association functions, and describe, if possible, their multiplicities.

A concern category describes an object, a construct, a topographic point, or a individual from existent concern life in a grade of item that can besides be understood by proficient sections and decision-makers ( contract, bill etc. ) . The categories are reduced to a big extent to strictly technically motivated belongingss. The description of the basic structural connexions is more of import here than detailing the single categories and finding which attributes and operations these categories should hold. Consequently, the consequence is a simple category diagram that chiefly contains categories without any inside informations, every bit good as the relationships between these categories ( associations, heritage ) including their function names and multiplicities. The definition of association waies is a secondary issue at this point and can be ignored.

Business categories are identified by finding the domain-specific cardinal categories of the future category theoretical account. Detailss and finer points can be ignored for the minute. Business categories are normally broken down further during the design procedure and frequently lead to several single categories. In our instance campaigners for concern categories are client, reserve, rental and vehicle. In rule, the theoretical account allows the lease to cite a vehicle that belongs to a vehicle type different from the 1 that is defined in the reserve linked to the lease ( if available ) . To what extent and under what conditions this instance is allowed is non established in the category theoretical account. To make this, matching expressed demands should be defined and/or the theoretical account extended with corresponding restraints.

The undermentioned points should be examined for each category and, if possible, documented:

  1. Components, subdivision ;
  2. Conditionss, events, expected/undesirable events ;
  3. Life rhythm: building and devastation minutes ;
  4. Forms of representation, restraints, functions, operations, informations types ;
  5. Relationships with other objects ;
  6. Set specifications/set grid ;

Planing We shall now look at assorted design options for a selected subdivision of he illustration and critically discourse their strengths, failings, and deductions. The corresponding category theoretical account should now be ( farther ) developed. The undermentioned footings have appeared in this connexion:

  1. Business spouse
  2. Customer
  3. Customer file
  4. Contact spouse
  5. Supplier
  6. Supplier file
  7. Enterprise
  8. Private individual
  9. Bank history
  10. Telecommunication connexions ( in short: phone figure )
  11. Address
  12. Employee.

To get down with, all the listed footings are interpreted as possible categories. But what are their duties and relationships to each other and how can they be appropriately represented in a design theoretical account? These and other inquiries will be discussed below.

The footings endeavor and private individual do non be on their ain but merely in connexion with the footings concern spouse, client, provider, contact spouse, and employee ( “A client is an endeavor or a private person” ) . The term concern spouse is a generic term for client, provider, contact spouse, and employee. The undermentioned footings can hence be ab initio considered as categories: concern spouse, private individual, endeavor, client, provider, contact spouse, and employee.

The design procedure entails developing a bill of exchange solution for a given job, taking into history the specified basic conditions. It is hence impossible to develop a design without doing premises about the basic application architecture. The application architecture defines the chief possibilities for and limitations on possible solutions to the job. In add-on to the application architecture, other basic conditions must be taken into history, e.g. development tools, criterions, etc. Before get downing the first design activities, it is necessary to stipulate the architecture of the hereafter applications. It determines which sorts of categories and, as a consequence, which interfaces demand to be designed. A well thought through, clean application architecture besides helps to accomplish:

  1. A reasonable division of labour and a clear overview ;
  2. Long-run flexibleness in system development ;
  3. A higher grade of re-usability.

We start planing procedure by placing different procedure and the description and definition of each procedure.

Use Case Diagram


A usage instance diagram shows the relationships between histrions and usage instances.


A usage instance diagram describes the interaction between a set of usage instances and the histrions involved in these usage instances. It therefore represents both context and construction for the description of how a concern event is handled. A concern event is, for illustration, the written harm study of a individual with place insurance. The concern procedure ( for illustration “Damage claim place insurance” ) describes the full procedure of managing such an event. Potentially, the concern procedure besides includes activities which are non straight supported by package or the application to be developed ( for illustration “Visit to the premises by a loss adjuster” ) .

There are assorted types of usage instances, assorted types of histrions, and assorted types of relationships between these theoretical account elements. They will be explained separately in the undermentioned subdivisions.

We take here the designing of the sequence diagram as an illustration and compose on the description of the categories used in planing the sequence diagram.

Sequence Diagrams


A sequence shows a series of messages exchanged by a selected set of objects in a temporally limited state of affairs, with an accent on the chronological class of events.


The sequence diagram fundamentally shows the same facts as a coaction diagram but from another position. In the coaction diagram, the accent lies on the cooperation between objects. The chronological class of communicating between objects is indicated by the enumeration of messages. In the sequence diagram, the accent is on the chronological class of messages. Objects are simply shown by perpendicular line of lifes. This highlights the chronological sequence of the messages. Time runs from top to bottom.


Objects are represented by dotted perpendicular lines. On top of the line, we find the name or the object symbol. Messages are drawn as horizontal pointers between the object lines, on which the message itself is noted in the signifier message ( statements ) . Similarly to the coaction diagram, the response is shown in textual signifier ( response: = message ( ) ) or as a separate but dotted pointer with an unfastened caput. Imbrication of the dotted line of lifes with wide, empty ( or grey ) bars symbolizes the control focal point. The control focal point specifies which object presently holds plan control, i.e. which object is presently active.



An histrion is an entity located outside the system that is involved in the interaction with the system described in a usage instance. An histrion may be a individual, e.g. a user, but may besides be another proficient system, e.g. SAP, the operating system, etc.


Actors are, for illustration, the users of a system. As histrions, nevertheless, it is non the individual involved who is perceived but the functions they assume in the context of the usage instance. Therefore, if a individual appears in several functions ( for illustration client advice and order response ) , several corresponding histrions are noted in the usage instance diagram.

Actors possess associations to utilize instances if they are involved in the procedures described in the usage instances. Actors can besides hold relationships to each other. On the one manus, they can hold association relationships, if you wish to portray that histrions interact among each other, which by and large does non stand for any direct demands on the system to be produced, but which makes clear the overall state of affairs and the context of the usage instance.


Entity categories normally represent a domain-specific state of affairs or real-world object and:

  1. By and large have a big figure of properties ;
  2. Have many crude operations ( getAttr ( ) , setAttr ( ) , etc. ) ;
  3. Do non hold many complex operations ;
  4. Frequently merely have a few life rhythm provinces or simple province sequences.

They should ever be included in analysis and design theoretical accounts. Examples are categories such as Contract, Customer, Address, etc.


Control classes represent a work flow, control, or computation procedure and:

  1. By and large have few or no properties of their ain ;
  2. A Often merely have a short transient life-time, i.e. they exist merely for the clip of the procedure that they control ; frequently have entree to a set of entity categories, from which they request informations or name simple operations, and to which they write back the consequences of the procedure or the computation, for illustration ;
  3. Have some complex operations ;
  4. Sometimes have no provinces ;
  5. Sometimes hold really complex province theoretical accounts that describe comprehensive procedures.

If we were to look critically at this subdivision into entity and control categories, we might believe that a basic rule of the object-oriented attack is being abandoned. Objects are units that combine and encapsulate informations and functionality. It might be thought that this is contradicted by a distinction into entity and control categories.

In fact, the motive behind it is rather different. Entity categories may really good incorporate functionality, i.e. operations, that can be every bit complex as you like. A decisive facet, nevertheless, is that these operations should ever associate to the category ‘s country of duty. Occasionally during patterning one might come across procedures, sequences or computations that concern more than one category. In such a state of affairs it is frequently impossible to include the corresponding operations in any of the available entity categories because they do non cover the appropriate country of duty. In such an event, i.e. whenever the content of operations relates to several categories and represents something higher, this is a clear index that a control category should be created.


Interface categories are abstract definitions of strictly functional interfaces.

  1. They do non specify any properties or associations.
  2. They have no cases.
  3. They define a set of abstract operations.
  4. They frequently define stipulations and postconditions, invariants and possible exclusions for these operations.
  5. They are an of import assistance for spliting package development between different squads ( design by contract ) .
  6. They frequently have the same names as entity and control categories and are so by and large implemented by these categories.

Interface categories should besides be included in analysis and design theoretical accounts, unless they have an entirely proficient motive or can be derived to the full automatically.

A«BoundaryA» ( interface object )

While interface categories represent an abstract definition, interface objects are particular concrete objects that supply a particular position of a set of other objects. They represent a digest of belongingss of other objects that are often required in common or that would otherwise hold to be distributed over a big figure of single objects. The motive for this is to screen and conceal the structural connexions and dependences of a set of ( entity and control ) classes with regard to other categories. This allows one to accomplish a better separation of the assorted countries of a big theoretical account. In this sense, interface objects specify frontages.

Interface objects:

  1. Have properties that are about all derived or which may be derived. Insofar as they contain properties, so they are merely for the intermediate storage of entity properties or control consequences, e.g. for public presentation grounds ;
  2. Are non relentless ;
  3. Make non really depict any concern procedures, i.e. they do non incorporate any domain-specific logic ;
  4. Make non really have any operations of their ain but merely delegate operation calls. Sometimes the operations of interface objects represent simple combinations of several external operations. However, this frequently involves including domain-specific logic and should hence be avoided. Control categories are more suited for this intent ;
  5. Make non really have any provinces ;
  6. Are normally singletons, i.e. in contrast to interface categories they are concrete categories for interface objects.