IT: Information systems Essay

The impressive betterments that are continuously being made in cost-effectiveness of computing machine hardware are doing an tremendous enlargement in the figure of application for which computer science is going a executable and economical solution.

This in bend is puting greater and greater demands for the development and operation of computing machine package systems. The growing of package industry has non nevertheless been painless. Statisticss shows that the development of package has been marked by cost over-run, late bringings, hapless dependability and users dissatisfaction. In an attempt to convey subject to the development of package systems, efforts have been made since 1970s to use the cogency of scientific discipline and technology to the package production procedure ( Tarek K. Abdel-Hamid and Madnick 1989 ) .The methodological analysiss have matured from the debut of Structured Analysis method in late 1970ss to the Object Oriented Analysis of 1880ss.

Structured System Analysis and Design:

Structured Systems Analysis/Structured Design, abbreviated SSA/SD, ( besides called Structured Analysis and Design, abbreviated SA/SD ) has been the most popular and widely used analysis and design method since the 1970s. Although it is being superseded by object-oriented attacks, many of the notations, procedures, and heuristics of this method have been adopted by later methods.

Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology is the most sophisticated of the function-oriented analysis and design methods. Structured Systems Analysis ( SSA ) was originally developed by Yourdon and DeMarco and refined several times. SSA formed the mainstream of Systems Analysis from the late 1970’s into the 1990’s. Social security administration is still the preferable systems analysis for a batch of people.

Principles of Structured Methodology:

Since its debut in the late 1970ss, Structured Analysis has undergone a considerable sum of alterations, nevertheless the implicit in rules have more or less remained the same. It belongs to a wide household of design methods based on hierarchal decomposition of map, frequently referred to as functional analysis.
Structured analysis and design is an attack that emphasizes analysis of informations flows and processes instead than command flows or functional hierarchies. This attack uses informations flow diagrams, informations lexicons, minispecs, and construction charts to bring forth and document analyses and designs.The method was pioneered by Larry Constantine in 1974 and documented in a assortment of books. The best modern intervention of structured analysis is Edward Yourdon, “Modern Structured Analysis” ,

Yourdon Press, 1992 ( Yourdon 1992 ) . Modern interventions of structured design are rare ( likely because the design procedure and heuristics are non really utile ) , so the best debut is Edward Yourdon and Larry Constantine, “Structured Design” , Prentice-Hall, 1979. ( Yourdon and Constantine 1979 )
The methodological analysis since its origin has influenced other design methods and is besides supported my most CASE tools.

The Notations used in the Structured Methodology are ;

Data flow diagrams ( DFDs ) show functional decomposition, with an accent on the transportation of informations in and out of the system and between plan units.

A context diagram is a particular sort of informations flow diagram used to picture the inputs and end products of a system as a whole.

Pseudocode/Minispecs is English written with programming concepts as a agency of easy but exactly depicting processing.

A information lexicon is a chief list of all the information flows, shops, eradicators, procedures, minispecs, attributes, and informations elements in a system.

Harmonizing to Demarco ( DeMarco 1978 ) , the Analysis should include four stairss patterning the current physical, current logical, new logical and new physical. Each measure should dwell of a complete description of the system by DFDs, the informations lexicon and minispecs. Although there has been a batch of argument on the utility of a current physical theoretical account and has resulted in many recommendations like constructing an “Essential Model” ( Palmer and McMenamin 1984 ) or jumping the edifice of a current physical theoretical account ( Yourdon 1992 )

Structured Analysis/Structured Design contained a pattern known as “The Transform Analysis” [ 2 ] , which was used to change over the diagrams stand foring a Structured Analysis into the diagrams that represented a Structured Design. This pattern, and so much of the certification of the period, established the impression that the design was straight derivable from the analysis by using some simple transmutation regulations. This meant that the analysis was truly a preliminary description of the design, necessitating merely a function operation to finish. In SASD it was necessary to complete the analysis before the Transform Analysis could be applied to interpret the analysis into a design. Therefore, SASD strongly reinforced the waterfall theoretical account of systems development.

Critical Assumptions Underlying Structured Analysis ( Bansler and Bodker 1993 )
· Structured Methodology is representative of a “Functionalist” [ 3 ] or a “System-Structural” attack to the survey of organisations. So the organisation is seen as a “machine” designed to execute a given map optimally.
· The job that is to be solved is clearly defined, and will non alter during the procedure. It is possible to verify if the solution obtained meets the initial design standards.
· The interior decorator is assumed to be wholly rationale i.e. , he has complete cognition as to what the concluding solution should look like.
· It is possible to separate map from execution, i.e. determinations about the new physical theoretical account must be postponed until after the new logical theoretical account has been determined.

These premises have led to a figure of lacks with respect to the practical application of the method:
· Structured Analysis underrates the accomplishment of the workers and workers or people are made into objects, perceived as system constituents comparable with tools, machines and natural stuffs.
· In existent life design state of affairss, jobs are sick defined more frequently than non, Aims and ends are obscure and maintain altering invariably which undermines the premises of the Structured Method.
· Normally the design procedure is a corporate procedure where interactions between several histrions take topographic point and non merely by a rational interior decorator. The Structured method overlooks the fact that some signifier of active user engagement is indispensable when aims and rating standards are non expressed and fixed at the beginning.
· It is less likely that the user will be able to conceive of how the system will work merely by looking at formal descriptions such as the information flow diagrams.
· The informations flow diagrams and the assorted types of formal notations are non designed with the user in head, and hence causes troubles in pass oning with the users

Structured Methodology therefore needed a batch of polish to be really used in theory, there was a demand for a more user-centered attack to Systems Analysis and Design.

In the late 1980’s a new set of thoughts arrived in the field of systems analysis and design – Object Oriented Analysis and Design.

Object Oriented Methodology:

Though object-orientation ( OO ) was invented in the 1960ss, it languished for two
decennaries, before lifting to popularity in the 1890ss. At first, there was merely object-oriented scheduling ( OOP ) . Soon, nevertheless, the OO prefix was applied to both analysis ( OOA ) and design ( OOD ) .
The end for OOA was to extinguish the Transform Analysis that was used in structured methods, or its tantamount. Alternatively of holding to interpret the finished analysis into a design, an OOA could be elaborated into an OOD through the add-on of excess item. This meant that the analysis and design could be performed in the same notation, and at the same clip.
Object-oriented analysis examines system demands from the position of categories and objects found in the specified sphere. It looks at the behavior of the system independent of its sphere. Object-oriented analysis looks at the real-world environment, in which a system will run, with this environment dwelling of people and things interacting to make some consequence. The people and things are foremost analysed in the most abstract signifier and these abstractions become the category. The abstraction is analysed and reanalysed in multiple loops until all objects are unambiguously identified. Object features and their behaviors are so analysed to set up the assorted provinces an object can hold and to specify the methods the object will utilize to make action. This analysis attempt will place the objects that will necessitate to be created and supported every bit good as the methods and the messages used by the objects to do actions. How does this differ from traditional analysis methods? In the traditional method, the focal point is on concern procedures and the informations needed to back up the procedure. Traditional methods depict the system in footings of inputs, end products and information flows — get downing with a structured analysis and developing procedural plans. Object-oriented analysis shifts the focal point to an attempt to unite procedures and informations into objects to de-emphasize the focal point on processs. The object knows how to carry through a undertaking or behavior ; hence, it is non of import to the analysis attempt to concentrate on the procedures associated with the behavior, switching the focal point from how to what a system is supposed to make. Object-oriented analysis theoretical accounts the constructs of behavioral and interaction within a system instead than the procedures and processs.
Object-oriented development is non a new engineering but it has non had widespread usage and is still maturating. Object-oriented analysis starts you on a way that can take to benefits non merely in the analysis procedure but besides in subsequent development stages.

Benefits of Object Oriented Methods:

Advocates of the object-oriented attack list the benefits as · An easier manner to advance the apprehension of a system, · Reusability of theoretical accounts and scheduling, modifiability · Reduced costs associated with alteration
· Reduced development hazard
· High quality of the theoretical accounts
· High productiveness
· The development velocity, grade of organisation, hardiness, and codification reuse have all been enhanced so much that traveling back to any other manner of making things is wholly unthinkable.
· Encapsulation of informations and behavior into a individual entity ( i.e. , the object )

These benefits lead to a superior method of analyzing concern procedures and demands. Finally, because the modern-day position of development is from the object-oriented position, object-oriented analysis allows us to take advantage of the modern-day scheduling linguistic communications, runing systems and associated tools.
Objects are said to retroflex what worlds see in existent life and, hence, entreaties to human knowledge. The object-oriented paradigm views the universe as composed of objects with chiseled belongingss, with objects retroflexing things in an environment. It is easier to advance a user ‘s apprehension when the user is presented with objects depicting things found in the normal class of carry oning concern. Reusability is a coveted end of all development and is based on the reluctance of reinventing something when it has already been invented. Object-oriented development supports this, particularly in the construct of abstraction. Abstraction supports continual loops of analysis until alone objects are found in a category hierarchy. These alone objects inherit features from the higher-level categories and this allows you to recycle information from the antecedently defined categories, extinguishing the demand to reinvent it. The usage of objects makes it easier to alter and modify systems.
While the advocates of object-oriented analysis item the benefits discussed above, critics have maintained that it is non the solution to all jobs. Criticisms of object-orientation include
· deficiency of standardisation,
· the dearly-won nature of following this paradigm, · jobs associated with the construct of reusability, · pertinence of following it for bequest systems
· confusion of excessively many OOA/D methods [ 4 ]
Changing from a traditional development theoretical account to an object-oriented attack is dearly-won and should non be dismissed lightly. This alteration requires the ill-famed paradigm displacement, intending you have to wholly alter your manner of thought and alter your concern processes every bit good as invest in preparation in order to guarantee the staff is ready to suit the alterations. This requires an investing in non lone money but besides clip. Critics of object-oriented development contend reusability is really hard to use in both new development and the continual development of systems.

In malice of these unfavorable judgments, Object Oriented Approaches are better suited than Structured attacks, an of import ground being the fact that it reduces complexness, which has been the root cause of many IS failures in the yesteryear. Coad and Yourdon suggest 7 facets of complexness any signifier of analysis demands to turn to, and which the OO attack embodies,
· Abstraction
· Encapsulation
· Inheritance
· Association
· Communication
· Permeating Methods of Administration
· Scale
· Classs of Behaviour

Most significantly OO attack is an incremental and iterative attack therefore it takes into consideration the facets of hazard involved in the development procedure unlike the structured attacks.

Should concerns follow object-oriented analysis? There is no distinct reply to this because it is dependent upon concern demands, and the willingness of the concern to do the investing necessary to follow this methodological analysis. In order to follow this methodological analysis, the concern should put in preparation for all persons involved in the analysis procedure and easy incorporate the procedure by utilizing it in low-risk undertakings foremost to let the analysts to larn from their errors. Successful acceptance of this methodological analysis lies in committedness, preparation, and experience.


It is clear that the Object Oriented paradigm and engineerings are with us to remain and will assist us make the application systems of the following century. Object Oriented Development ( OOD ) has been touted as the following great progress in package technology. It promises to cut down development clip, cut down the clip and resources required to keep bing applications, addition codification reuse, and supply a competitory advantage to organisations that use it. There are many booby traps and traps involved in utilizing OOD engineerings [ 5 ] , merely like there are in utilizing traditional methodological analysiss for systems development. However, if OOD is used decently, the wagess and benefits can be greater than utilizing traditional attacks and this would decidedly take to a decrease of Information Systems Failures.

  • Bibliographies:
  • Avison, D and Fitzgerald, G. , ( 1995 ) . Information Systems Development: Methodologies, Tools andTechniques. 2/E. McGraw Hill, Maidenhead
  • Bansler, J. and K. Bodker ( 1993 ) . “ A Reappraisal of Structured Analysis: Design in an OrganizationalContext. ” ACM minutess on Information Systems 11: 165-193.
  • DeMarco, T. ( 1978 ) . Structured Analysis and System Specification. New York, Yourdon Press.
  • Palmer, J. and S. McMenamin ( 1984 ) . Essential Systems Analysis. New York, Yourdon Press/ Prentice-Hall.
  • Tarek K. Abdel-Hamid and S. E. Madnick ( 1989 ) . “ Lessons Learned from Modeling the Dynamicss ofSoftware Development. ” Communications of the ACM 32 ( 12 ) .
  • Yourdon, E. ( 1992 ) . Modern Structured Analysis. New York, Yourdon Press/Prentice Hall.
  • Yourdon, E. and L. Constantine ( 1979 ) . Structured Design, Prentice-Hall.