Juvenile Delinquency The Clashing Cultures Of Media Criminology Essay

It does n’t count what country of the universe one lives in, there are ever studies of juvenile delinquency taking topographic point in one signifier or another. In some instances, the discourtesies may be every bit minor as disfigurement of belongings though, in other instances, the offenses may go more serious affecting bodily injury or decease. Throughout history, bookmans have attempted to detect what it is that gives certain juveniles the disposition to take portion in delinquent behaviour. Through this research several theories have been developed one of which is called the civilization struggle theory. Culture struggle as it pertains to criminalism is a clang between two different civilizations of people focused around what each civilization deems to be appropriate or inappropriate behaviour ( Schmalleger, 2006 ) . Arguably, one of the largest influences upon the civilization of juveniles, either positive or negative, is that of popular media. One can non come into contact with a juvenile without witnessing an imitation of a presently released film or hearing the wordss of the most current vocal exceeding the charts. In many instances, this imitation can take to delinquent behaviours such as was mentioned supra. This manuscript will briefly discourse the civilization struggle theory and how it pertains to juvenile delinquency. Besides discussed will be the influence that popular media, such as gesture images and music, have upon juvenile delinquency.

Literature Review

In order to accurately compose a manuscript, a concrete definition was needed upon which to establish any farther decisions. Schmalleger ( 2006 ) provided a sufficient definition for cultural struggle theory. Sellin ( 1938 ) provided a somewhat more elaborate treatment on cultural struggle theory every bit good as specifying primary and secondary struggle as the two different types of cultural struggle.

Popular music plays a distinguishable portion within the life of many juveniles. Prinskey & A ; Rosenbaum ( 1987 ) every bit good as Roe ( 1985 ) provided surveies bespeaking that there is a big figure of immature people who listen to music in the background during different activities. Many surveies even found a nexus between popular music and juvenile individuality building ( Gracyk, 2001 ; Laughey, 2006 ; Roe, 1999 ) . A survey by Asbridge, and Wortley ( 2009 ) provided of import information on the nexus between juvenile delinquency and blame and hip-hop music. The survey found that blame and hip-hop dramas more of a function in juvenile delinquency in white young person instead than black young person. It is theorized that this is partially because white young person are more receptive to the mobster image portrayed within the blame and hip-hop message, a theory which has been echoed in other surveies ( Mahiri & A ; Conner, 2003 ; Quinn, 2005 ) .

Another signifier of popular media playing a major function in the defining of juvenile civilization are gesture images. They have been lauded as the narrators of our clip ( Gerbner, 2003 ; Roden, 2007 ) though many have cautioned of their negative influence ( Benshoff & A ; Sean, 2004 ; Giroux, 1996, 1997 ) . Bandura ( 1986 ) claims that many juveniles learn to be violent through being exposed to violent scenes portrayed in gesture images, a determination which is besides echoed in other surveies ( Snyder, 1995 ; Ellis, 1989 ) . Two illustrations of gesture images that portray delinquent messages to juveniles include Kids ( 1995 ) and River ‘s Edge ( 1987 ) both of which Kleeman & A ; Rodan ( 2009 ) every bit good as Giroux ( 1996 ) provide descriptions of some of the scenes within the films.


Cultural Conflict

Culture struggle theory was foremost to the full discussed by Sellin ( 1938 ) . Harmonizing to Sellin, the values that delegate proper human behaviour within a society ‘s civilization are acquired in early childhood through socialisation within the person ‘s civilization. It is the dissension between the values of these two civilizations, which are by and large the footing for jurisprudence, that finally leads to what one civilization deems as condemnable activity while the other civilization does non. Sellin besides discussed how there are two different types of cultural struggle including primary struggle, in which there is a cardinal struggle between two different civilizations, and secondary struggle, in which there is a struggle between the primary civilization and one of its subcultures.

Cultural struggle has been used to explicate the correlativity between civilizations and criminalism in many different surveies. The surveies included topics such as economic position and violent delinquency ( Heimer, 1997 ) , the effects of globalisation on criminalism ( Karstedt, 2001 ) , an scrutiny of force in modern-day Albania ( Arsovska & A ; Verduyn, 2008 ) every bit good as analyzing the differences in civilization between the autochthonal Maori and New Zealand ‘s post-colonial condemnable justness system ( Bull, 2004 ) . A basic illustration of cultural struggle may be witnessed within any preschool schoolroom when a kid is caught by the instructor utilizing coarse linguistic communication. When punished, the kid does non understand why he is in problem because he had heard his female parent and male parent use the offending word many times at place and, hence, thought that it was acceptable linguistic communication. In this instance, a signifier of primary struggle is being represented in that the place civilization and the preschool civilization were in dissension doing the kid to be punished for what he believed to be acceptable behaviour.

Influence in Music

Music is a signifier of popular media that is readily available to persons of all ages within assorted shops, on the wireless, or on the cyberspace. Many immature people even use it as an concomitant to different activities including drive, relaxation, and work ( Prinskey & A ; Rosenbaum, 1987 ; Roe, 1985 ) . It has even been shown that popular music may even play a function in the individuality building of juvenile hearers ( Gracyk, 2001 ; Laughey, 2006 ; Roe, 1999 ) . This gives popular music the potency to be enormously influential in many countries of a juvenile ‘s life including the moving out of delinquent activities. This subdivision will concentrate upon a survey that was performed upon blame and hip-hop, considered by many to presently be two of the most controversial music genres, and their possible ties to juvenile delinquency.

A survey by Tanner, Asbridge, and Wortley ( 2009 ) attempted to cast some light upon the claims that the blame and hip-hop genres contribute to delinquent behaviours in juveniles. The research workers surveyed 3393 juveniles aged 13-18 in multiple Canadian schools. The consequences of the research found that about 56 per centum of those surveyed claimed that they liked blame and hip-hop really much or rather a batch doing it the most popular music genre amongst those surveyed. Of those that claimed blame and hip-hop as their favourite music genre, 46 per centum were black, 19 per centum were white, 19 per centum were Asiatic or South Asiatic, and 16 per centum were from other racial groups. These consequences indicate the strong popularity of blame and hip-hop music with an interestingly diverse racial listenership.

When partner offing the above consequences with consequences of extra demographic and condemnable enquiries, the result of the survey indicated that juveniles involved in delinquent activities are more likely to bask blame or hip-hop than their opposite numbers who refrain from delinquent activities. Interestingly plenty, when broken down by race, it was found that an grasp of blame and hip-hop is found to be a strong index of delinquency among white and Asiatic or South Asiatic young person. For black young person, an grasp of blame and hip-hop was found to be an indicant of feelings of societal unfairness, younger age, and lower cultural capital. The research workers theorized that the deficiency of delinquency in black young person was founded upon a strongly instilled racial individuality and position life in a white society. White and Asiatic young person who are fans of black music are thought to be foreigners to their ain civilization and hence experience the demand to be accepted into black civilization. In seeking to emulate black civilization, they strive to over-imitate what they believe to be the ideal theoretical account of black street life outlined in the vocals to which they listen, many of which bespeaking condemnable activity as reliable mobster behaviour. This survey along with others ( Mahiri & A ; Conner, 2003 ; Quinn, 2005 ) indicates that this message is more readily accepted by white and Asiatic young person instead than their black opposite numbers.

Influence in Motion Pictures

Another signifier of popular media which plays a major portion in non merely juvenile civilization but in a society ‘s civilization at big is gesture images. While telecasting and gesture images have been lauded by media theoreticians and critics as the dominant narrator of our clip ( Gerbner, 2003 ; Roden, 2007 ) , it has besides been accused of making negative and degrading images within the cultural environment of maleness and muliebrity ( Benshoff & A ; Sean, 2004 ; Giroux, 1996, 1997 ) . Bandura ( 1986 ) , a taking authorization in the subject of societal larning theory, claims that many juveniles learn to act sharply through emulating the behaviours that they observe in gesture images. Besides, research has shown that young persons are more willing to accept equals ‘ delinquent behaviour after merely briefly watching a violent scene from a film, this credence on the portion of the young person makes it more likely that the young person would take portion in delinquent behaviour themselves ( Snyder, 1995 ) . Research by Ellis ( 1989 ) found males more supportive of aggressive behaviour towards females after being exposed to violent erotica. These findings provide valuable penetration into the possible injury that improper exposure to ocular media may present to waxy persons. In the undermentioned subdivision, illustrations of gesture image glamorisation of delinquent behaviour will be briefly discussed.

One does non hold to look far to happen gesture images affecting scenes romanticizing delinquent behaviour through force as a agency of transfusing power over others while minimising the effects of these actions. Two illustrations of this are provided by the gesture pictures River ‘s Edge ( Pillsbury & A ; Hunter, 1986 ) and Kids ( Chambers & A ; Clark, 1995 ) . In River ‘s Edge, the gap scene is of the chief character, John, go forthing the organic structure of his bare and strangled dead girlfriend by the side of the river. Throughout the remainder of the film, the lives of John ‘s friends, to whom he has shown the organic structure, are depicted as they minimize the offense and effort to conceal the fact that the offense took topographic point wholly. Further delinquent actions are displayed as some of John ‘s juvenile friends are shown stealing beer for John. There is besides a distinguishable deficiency of proper parental supervising in the fact that the female parent of one of the delinquent juveniles non merely makes visible radiation of her boy ‘s juvenile behaviours but besides returns to portion marihuanas with him ( Kleeman & A ; Rodan, 2009 ) .

In the film Kids ( Chambers & A ; Clark, 1995 ) directed by Larry Clark, foolhardiness every bit good as uninhibited drug and sexual activity are exhibited by two white, lower category male juveniles by the names of Telly and Casper. During the film, Telly, who is the ego proclaimed virgin sawbones, seduces a immature 12 twelvemonth old virgin and has sex with her during which clip he infects her with the AIDS virus. His degree of neglect for others is displayed conspicuously when, subsequently in the film, he proceeds to hold sex with another miss infecting her besides after which he claims that sex is one of his lone worldly pleasures. Giroux ( 1996 ) provided a review of Kids that attempts to sum up the juvenile degeneracy displayed within the movie:

Clark provides a 1 ) glamorisation of marauding adolescent male gender and 2 ) building of adolescent female gender as sexual objects to be taken up or set down at will of they are sex-crazed and on the brand, 3 ) demonisation of interior metropolis African Americans in the movie as the childs talk in stereotyped African American slang naming themselves niggas and allowing inkiness as a form of unsafe young person. ( Kleeman & A ; Roden, 2009, pp. 137 )

If box office statistics are any indicant, films with messages such as this are viewed by more and more persons each twelvemonth, many, doubtless, being juveniles. In instances such as this 1 must inquire if juveniles are being influenced by the incorrect message.


Juvenile delinquency is a serious issue that is encountered no affair what country of the universe an single lives in. In some instances, juvenile delinquency can be every bit mild as simple spray painting while other signifiers of delinquency may affect hurt or decease. Scholars have found that the cultural struggle theory may be utilized in an effort to explicate certain variables which may act upon juvenile delinquency. It is clearly apparent that popular media plays a clear function within the civilization of juveniles today. What sort of message are the juveniles in today ‘s society being exposed to? In many instances, the popular media portrays scenes of force, drug usage, and sexual misconduct without any indicant of reverberations or effects giving many juveniles a position of a civilization that does non be. Scott ( 1995 ) said it best when he said “ Children and striplings with limited ability to believe in the abstract may hold trouble following complex secret plans and may come away with the incorrect message ” ( p.336 ) . Again, what kinds of messages are being conveyed to juveniles today?

Arsovska, J. & A ; Verduyn, P. ( 2008 ) . Globalization, behavior norms, and ‘culture struggle ‘ : Percepts of force and offense in an cultural Albanian context. The British Journal of Criminology. 48. 226-246.

Bandura, A. ( 1986 ) . Social foundations of idea and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Benshoff, H. & A ; Sean, G. ( 2004 ) . America on movie: Race, category, gender and gender at the films. New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing.

Bull, S. ( 2004 ) . ‘The land of slaying, cannibalism, and all sorts of flagitious offenses? ‘ : Maori and offense in New Zealand, 1853-1919. The British Journal of Criminology. 44 ( 4 ) . 496-519.

Chambers, M. ( Producer ) & A ; Clark, L. ( Director ) . ( 1995 ) . Kids [ Motion Picture ] . United States: Reflecting Excalibur Films.

Ellis, L. ( 1989 ) . Theories of colza. New York: Hemisphere.

Gerbner, G. ( 2003 ) . Television force at a clip of convulsion and panic. In G. Dines & A ; J Humez ( explosive detection systems. ) , Gender, race, and category in media: A text-reader, 339-348. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Giroux, H. ( 1996 ) . Channel surfboarding: Racism, the media and the devastation of today ‘s young person. New York: Saint Martins Press.

Giroux, H. ( 1997 ) . Fleeting civilizations: Race, force, and youth. London: Routledge.

Gracyk, T. ( 2001 ) . I wan na be me: Rock music and the political relations of individuality. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Heimer, K. ( 1997 ) . Socioeconomic position, subcultural definitions, and violent delinquency. Social Forces. 75 ( 3 ) . 799-833.

Karstedt, S. ( 2001 ) . Comparing civilizations, comparing offense: Challenges, chances and jobs for a planetary criminology. Crime, Law & A ; Social Change. 36. 285-308.

Kleeman, J. K. & A ; Roden, K. ( 2009 ) . Developing critical consciousness of media, force, and maleness for condemnable justness pedagogues. Journal of the Institute of Justice & A ; International Studies. 9. 131-144.

Laughey, D. ( 2006 ) . Music and youth civilization. Edinburgh University Press.

Mahiri, J. & A ; Conner, E. ( 2003 ) . Black young person force has a bad blame. Journal of Social Issues. 59 ( 1 ) . 265-286.

Pillsbury, S. ( Producer ) & A ; Hunter, T. ( Director ) . ( 1986 ) . River ‘s Edge [ Motion Picture ] . United States: Island Pictures.

Prinskey, L. E. & A ; Rosenbaum, J. ( 1987 ) . ‘Leer-ics ‘ or wordss: Teenage feelings of Rock ‘n ‘ Roll. Youth and Society. 18 ( 4 ) . 384-397.

Quinn, E. ( 2005 ) . Nuthin ‘ but a “ G ” thang. New York: Columbia University Press.

Roden, K. ( 2007 ) . At the films: An interpretative survey of the usage of movies with university pupils. Doctoral Dissertation. Norman, OK: University of Oaklahoma.

Roe, K. ( 1985 ) . Swedish young person and music: The hearing and motives. Communication Research. 12 ( 3 ) . 353-362.

Roe, K. ( 1999 ) . Music and individuality among European young person. Soundscape. 2 ( 1 ) . 1-15.

Schmalleger, Frank ( 2006 ) .A Criminology today: An integrative debut, 4th edition.A Columbus, OH: A Prentice Hall.

Sellin, T. ( 1938 ) . Culture struggle and offense. New York: Social Science Research Council.

Snyder, S. ( 1995 ) . Movie portraitures of juvenile delinquency: Part 1 – epidemiology and criminology. Adolescence. 30 ( 117 ) . 53-64.

Snyder, S. ( 1995 ) . Movie portraitures of juvenile delinquency: Part II – sociology and psychological science. Adolescence. 30 ( 118 ) . 325-337.

Tanner, J. , Asbridge, M. , & A ; Wortley, S. ( 2009 ) . Listening to knap: Cultures of offense, civilizations of opposition. Social Forces. 88 ( 2 ) . 693-722.