Prevalence Of Campylobacter Species In Chicken Products Biology Essay

The current survey was conducted to find the prevalence of Campylobacter species, particularly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in poulet, poulet merchandises and associated forces. A sum of 120 samples were collected. The samples from poulet fecal matters 20, poulet merchandises 80 and associated forces 20 were used in the survey. Among the poulet merchandises samples of chests 20, thighs 20, wings 20, and Black Marias 20 were severally. All poulet samples were collected from local market along with fecal samples from the workers associated with poulet slaughtering ( Butchers ) around the different countries of Faisalabad territory. Out of 120 samples examined 43 were found to be contaminated with Campylobacter. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter was found to be 35.83 % out of which Campylobacter jejuni was 72.09 % and the staying 27.91 % of the isolates were Campylobacter coli. Among the ascertained samples the highest prevalence 75 % was recorded in poulet fecal matters followed by 45 % in associated forces while in poulet merchandises the highest prevalence was recorded in chest 35 % followed by 25 % thighs, 20 % wings and 15 % in poulet Black Marias. The survey reported that the prevalence of campylobacter species was significantly higher in the poulet fecal matters, raw poulet merchandises and in meatmans associated in poulet processing

Campylobacters are among the main beings that cause diarrhoeal disease in homo. The infection in most of the instances is from nutrient and H2O that has an economic importance all over the universe ( Dingle et al. , 2000 ; Yolanda et al. , 2002 ) . Largely the instances gone undiagnosed or have non been reported impacting more that 2.4 million people each twelvemonth. The distribution of disease is more frequent in summer that winter. Harmonizing to CDC few Numberss of Campylobacter organisms less than 500 could be infective ( CDC, 2005 ) .

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Campylobacteriosis is by and large connected with handling of domestic fowl, eating natural or under cooked meat of domestic fowl or it may originate as transverse taint of natural meat with already cooked meat and other nutrient points ( Corry & A ; Atabay, 2001 ) . The of import species of thermophilic Campylobacters are Campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, doing first instances of bacterial gastro enteritis and in 80 to 90 % of the instances nutrient borne infections are due to Campylobacter jejuni ( Frost et al. 1998 ; Park 2002 ) .

The Campylobacter are dispersed into a broad scope of species and is possible to insulate from animate beings and domestic fowl kept for nutrient production, wild animate beings, wild birds and from favored animate beings as commensal of their digestive system in concurrence to environment every bit good ( Sandberg, 2002 ) .

The increased ingestion of poulet and chicken by merchandises during current old ages led to increase in the out interruptions of human enterocolitis spread around the universe including developed and under developed states and peculiarly in kids, old people and patients with immunodeficiency ( CDC, 2005 ; Corry & A ; Atabay, 2001 ; NPHS, 2006 ) .

Animal raised for nutrient intent could be bearer for Campylobacter and may be symptomless, during butchering and carcase dressing there is hazard of taint of the nutrient merchandises with this pathogen ( Whyte et al. , 2003 ) .

The most of import and widespread sporadic nutrient borne and epidemic instances are due to the ingestion of under cooked meat of domestic fowl, unpasteurised milk and contaminated imbibing H2O ( Butzler and Oosterom 1991 ; Altekruse et Al. 1999 ; Jorgensen et al. , 2002 ) .

The of import Campylobacter coinage that is the cause diarrhea in kids is Campylobacter jejuni and the frequence is increased when they have favored animate beings, drink untreated H2O and use lily-livered meat ( Ali et al. , 2003 ) .

Campylobacter has been isolated from many nutrient points like, natural milk, milk merchandise, fresh salad and veggies along with natural, poulet, beef and mouton meat from different countries of Pakistan. ( Hussain et al. , 2007 ; Mahmood et al. , 2009 )

Campylobacters are responsible for universe wild infections in worlds so there is a demand to look into this pathogen at retail degree. The purpose of this survey was to find the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter species particularly Campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in poulet meat, chicken by merchandises obtained from retail stores in territory Faisalabad. Additionally the prevalence of Campylobacter species in the workers involved in butchering and at that place treating. Subsequently, the purpose was to find the prevalence and Campylobacter species in the retail nutrient merchandises sold at the markets. The consequences from this survey would be helpful in doing appraisal and happening the possible path of Campylobacter transmittal from natural poulet meat and poulet merchandises and happening the possible of Campylobacter transmittal in workers during poulet slaughtering and carcase dressing.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Sample aggregation

A sum of 120 samples ( 20 samples of each class ) were obtained over a period of 6 months from January 2008 to June 2008 on the twenty-four hours of butchering from assorted retail mercantile establishments located in Ghulam Muhammad Abad country Faisalabad. Samples include lily-livered fecal matters, poulet thighs, poulet wings, chicken Black Marias and stool of meatmans. All samples were rapped with polyvinylidene movies. The bundle permits anaerobiotic status and scarey temperature ( 2-5 oC ) was adopted with aid of insulated bags incorporating ice battalions instantly after aggregation samples were shifted to the section of Microbiology and analyzed within 24 hours to prove their possible taint with Campylobacters.

2.2. Sample readying

A selective pre-enrichment of the samples was performed on selective enrichment stock and plating on selective media and The isolation media and conditions were adopted as described by Hussain et Al. ( 2007 ) , Petersen et Al. ( 2001 ) and Nye et Al. ( 2001 ) .

The solid samples like poulet meat and by merchandises including poulet chest, thighs, wings, and Black Marias. Using a unfertile brace of scissor and forceps 10g from all samples were taken under sterile conditions and set into 90ml of Campy CVA stock ( Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, USA ) in unfertile plastic beakers. Subsequently, they were homogenized for 1 min in an extremist homogenizer ( Glas-ColAA® , Terre Haute, Indiana, USA ) . Then homogenized stuff was transferred to sterile prison guard capped trial tubings of 10 milliliters incorporating about 5 milliliters of homogenised sample. The headspace was minimized by adding some extra stock and the tubings were incubated at 42 oC for 24 hours. ( Murray et al. 1999 and Robert et Al. 1995 )

Semi-solid samples, including poulet fecal matters and human stool were selectively enriched in Campy CVA stock in prison guard capped test tubings of 10 milliliter. 1g of poulet fecal matters and human stool samples were added to divide trial tubings and the headspace was minimize by adding extra stock to make micro-aerophillic conditions inside the tubings and so incubated at 42 oC for 24 hours.

2.3. Microbiological analysis

After enrichment in stock, samples were inoculated into the Campy CVA Agar plates already prepared harmonizing to the recommendations of maker ( Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, USA ) along with provided antimicrobic agents and 5 % lysed sheep blood and incubated at 42 oC for 24-48 hours puting into an anaerobiotic jar under micro-aerophilic conditions ( CO2 10 % , O2 5 % and 85 % N2 ) The microaerophilic environment was adapted with the aid of catalyst-free gas battalions ( Biomerieux, France ) and examined for settlement feature after the continuance of 24 hours. ( Murray et al. 1999 )

Then the suspected settlements were sub-cultured onto modified wood coal Cefobid deoxycolate agar ( mCCDA-Preston ) plates prepared harmonizing to the recommendation of maker ( Les Labs. QuAA©-Lab Inc. Canada ) and incubated at 42 oC for 24-48 hours puting into an anaerobiotic jar under micro-aerophilic conditions ( CO2 10 % , O2 5 % and 85 % N2 ) . Again the microaerophilic environment was adopted with the aid of accelerator free gas battalions ( Biomerieux, France ) and examined for settlement feature after the continuance of 24 hours. ( Hutchinson and Bolton, 1984 )

The isolates from mCCDA-preston agar were farther streaked on MacConkey agar prepared harmonizing to Holt et Al. ( 1994 ) and Cruickshank et al. , ( 1975 ) to distinguish from other related beings of the same household as a differential agar.

Suspected Campylobacter settlements were examined morphologically, and studied under microscope utilizing Gram staining technique for presumptive designation as mentioned by Stern et al. , ( 2001 ) . The suspected positive samples for Campylobacter were eventually confirmed and analyzed with aid of analytical profile Index kit ( APIAA® , Biomerieux, France ) as used by ( Hussain et al. , 2007 ; Stoyanchev et al. , 2007 ) . Along with Campylobacter designation this API is besides helpful to place Campylobacter at specie degree and distinction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The characteristic reactions for the isolates on API kits were based on indoxyl acetate hydrolysis, hippurate hydrolysis and on activity of urease.

2.4. Statistical analysis

The Campylobacter recovery rates from poulet, poulet merchandises and associated forces samples was compared statistically utilizing computing machine tool Microsoft Excel and represented in diagrammatically and tabulated signifier. The significance degree of the information was distinguishable at P & lt ; 0.05

Figure 1

Table 1: Distribution of gathered samples on the footing of beginnings

Sr. No.

Beginning

Entire Samples

Campylobacter positive samples

No

%

1

Chicken Fecal matters

20

15

75.00

2

Chicken Breasts

20

07

35.00

3

Chicken Thighs

20

05

25.00

4

Chicken wings

20

04

20.00

5

Chicken Heartss

20

03

15.00

6

Human Stool

20

09

45.00

Entire

120

43

35.83

Table 2: Distribution of C. jejuni and C. coli among campylobacter positive samples

Sr. No.

Beginning

Campylobacter positive samples

C. jejuni

C. coli

No

%

No

%

1

Chicken Fecal matters

15

11

73.33

04

26.67

2

Chicken Breasts

07

05

71.43

02

28.57

3

Chicken Thighs

05

03

60.00

02

40.00

4

Chicken wings

04

03

75.00

01

25.00

5

Chicken Heartss

03

02

66.67

01

33.33

6

Human Stool

09

07

77.78

02

22.22

Entire

43

31

72.09

12

27.91

3. Consequences and treatment

The prevalence of Campylobacter in all the examined samples is summarized as graphical representation in Figure1. From 120 examined samples there were 43 found to be positive for Campylobacter. The overall prevalence found for Campylobacter in this survey was 35.83 % out of which 72.09 % isolates were recognized as Campylobacter jejuni and 27.91 % isolate were recognized as Campylobacter coli. Among the ascertained samples the highest incidence prevalence was recorded in poulet fecal matters 75 % ( 15/20 ) followed by 45 % ( 9/20 ) in associated forces. While in lily-livered byproducts the highest prevalence was recorded in poulet chest samples 35 % ( 7/20 ) along with 25 % ( 5/20 ) in poulet thighs, 20 % ( 4/20 ) in poulet wings and 15 % ( 3/20 ) in lily-livered bosom. ( Table1 ) . Campylobacter jejuni is more prevailing in all the ascertained samples

Out of 120 samples examined 43 were found to be contaminated with campylobacter. The overall prevalence of campylobacter was found to be 35.83 % out of which campylobacter jejuni was 72.09 % and the staying 27.91 % of the isolates were identified as campylobacter coli. Among the ascertained samples the highest prevalence 75 % was recorded in poulet fecal matters followed by 45 % in associated forces while in poulet by merchandises the highest prevalence was recorded in poulet chest 35 % followed by 25 % in poulet thighs, 20 % in poulet wings and 15 % in poulet Black Marias.

For poulet and chicken by merchandises a comparatively low prevalence was noticed by Hussain et Al. ( 2007 ) studied a sum of 1636 nutrient samples of meat, milk and other nutrient trade goods were procured Among meat samples, the highest prevalence ( 48 % ) of Campylobacter was recorded in natural poulet meat followed by natural beef ( 10.9 % ) and natural mouton ( 5.1 % ) . Among other nutrient trade goods, the highest prevalence was observed in vegetable/fruit salad ( 40.9 % ) , sandwiches ( 32 % ) , cheese ( 11 % ) and natural majority milk samples ( 10.2 % ) . The overall prevalence of Campylobacter was found to be 21.5 % , out of which 70.6 % were identified as Campylobacter ( C. ) jejuni and 29.4 % as C. coli.

In contrast of the above surveies Sallam ( 2007 ) study the prevalence of Campylobacter in fresh poulet meat and chicken byproducts and out of the 170 samples of poulet meat ( chests and thighs ) and chicken by merchandises ( wings, livers, ventriculuss and Black Marias ) , 110 ( 64.7 % ) were contaminated with Campylobacter. Among the different merchandises, poulet wings showed the highest taint incidence ( 77.1 % ) followed by poulet thighs ( 70 % ) , while chicken ventriculuss and Black Marias showed the lowest taint incidence ( 45 % and 40 % , severally ) . Of the 341 Campylobacter isolates, 278 ( 81.5 % ) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 63 ( 18.5 % ) isolates were identified as C. coli. These consequences are besides similar to the consequences shown by Stoyanchev et Al. ( 2007 ) who n = 210 of domestic fowl carcases and domestic fowl merchandises of these 35 frozen whole carcases, 135 chilled domestic fowl cuts ( 45 wing cuts, 45 thigh cuts and 45 filet ) and 40 thermally treated ( ready-to-eat ) domestic fowl merchandises. Although the consequences obtained showed that 35.2 % of the frozen domestic fowl carcases for sale in the markets were Campylobacter contaminated is similar to the overall prevalence shown in my consequences but in chilled domestic fowl cuts Campylobacter was isolated at the highest per centum in wing and thigh cuts, 91.1 % and 88.9 % , severally. Vashin et Al. ( 2005 ) reported the higher incidence of C. jejuni ( 89.7 % ) , followed by lower incidence of C. coli ( 10.3 % ) . Fernandez and Pison ( 1995 ) reported the higher incidence of campylobacter coli in poulet liver samples. From the 126 samples studied, 117 ( 92.9 % ) .

And for the prevalence of poulet fecal matters samples a comparatively high prevalence was recorded in a survey from cloacal swabs of domestic fowl by Kudirkiene et Al. ( 2008 ) who reported that out of 40 broiler cloacal samples examined Campylobacter species were detected and confirmed in 37 samples ( 92.5 % ) and C. jejuni was identified in 32 ( 86.5 % ) and C. coli in 5 ( 13.5 % ) out of 37 isolates.

Similarly a comparatively higher incidence was found by Yildrim et Al. ( 2005 ) who examined thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from 393 ( 91.8 % ) of 428 samples. A sum of 53 out of 57 rectal swab samples were positive for thermophilic Campylobacter species. Thermophilic Campylobacter species were isolated from 93.6 % , 92.9 % and 91.3 % of broiler carcase, fecal and cecal samples, respectivelycies Overall, 92.2 % and 7.8 % of the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli

While for the poulet meat samples a comparatively high prevalence of campylobacter was recorded from natural meat samples by Hong et Al. ( 2007 ) who studied a sum of 770 samples of retail natural meat and examined for the presence of Campylobacter species. The highest taint rates were observed in poulet meat ( 220 181.4 % ] of 270 samples ) , whereas the rates of taint in porc and beef were highly low ( 1.6 and 1.2 % , severally. Similarly by Wong et Al. ( 2007 ) who studied sum of 1,011 uncooked retail meat samples ( beef, un-weaned veau, poulet, lamb, mouton and porc ) Prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli were 89.1 % in poulet, 9.1 % in porc, 6.9 % in lamb and mouton, 3.5 % in beef, and 10 % in unweaned veau and by Savas and Ozdemir 2006 who studied 127 samples of poulet meat for sale on the retail market Campylobacter species were isolated from 83.4 % of the samples analyzed. Campylobacter jejuni was found in 74.8 % of all samples. A sum of 364 thermophilic Campylobacter strains were 70.1 % C. jejuni, 21.1 % Campylobacter coli and 8.6 % Campylobacter lari.

Higher prevalence in the present survey as compared to the old work done by Hussain et Al ( 2007 ) may be due to cross-contamination during manual skinning, evisceration and processing in the slaughter house/abattoir or in the meatman stores.

In Pakistan, the ingestion of poulet and chicken by merchandises could present a possible hazard to the public wellness. These nutrients are improbable to be contaminated with Campylobacter unless they acquired the being during readying as a consequence of cross-contamination and the usage of uncooked/undercooked constituent for chicken by merchandises.

Further surveies are required on the seasonal prevalence of Campylobacter in different nutrient merchandises. Surveillance information from the current survey will be helpful to public wellness professionals to place high hazard nutrient points sold in the supermarket/retail stores of Pakistan.