Prevalence of surveillance cameras. Essay

MODULE 11: Report Writing

Screen 1: Introduction

Exercise type: Input/Information

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

In this faculty you will larn how to:

O Structure your study

O provide mentions to bing research in a literature reappraisal

O express the necessity to make farther research

O describe a procedure chronologically

O usage nominalizations to mention to constructs and things

O represent findings through mentions to tabular arraies and figures

@ Petra: Let us make up one’s mind on these preparations after the 2nd bill of exchange is complete.

Scott 26.11.2009

Screen 2a: The Nature of Reports I: Purpose and Structure

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Academic studies

Academic studies are records of completed research. On the one manus, they document the specific process applied every bit good as the findings obtained. On the other manus, they explain the principle for carry oning the research and measure its deductions. Therefore, a study typically consists of four parts as illustrated by the theoretical account text: an debut associating the work to the research field at big ; a methods subdivision showing what precisely was done ; a consequences subdivision depicting the result of the research ; and a treatment supplying a final rating.

Written studies are a peculiarly frequent genre in scientific and proficient Fieldss but are besides rather common in the societal scientific disciplines. The most common type is that of a laboratory study, which includes the description of one or more experiments. Additionally, studies can document a field study, a statistical analysis, an experimental simulation, or some other type of academic probe.

Screen 2b: The Nature of Reports II: General Characterization of the Four Partss

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

The four parts of a study

The four parts of a study present the research conducted from different points of position. The more general contextualizations of the debut are followed by specific descriptions of the manner the probe was carried out. Then, the informations or other information collected is examined before being discussed in visible radiation of the general research context.

As the fabricated survey of velocity enforcement cameras shows, most subdivisions of a study tend to be in the present tense. However descriptions of methods are, by and large talking, written in the past tense because the mention here is to actions performed prior to the authorship of the study. Methods subdivisions are besides the lone 1s where the inactive predominates. As it is normally less of import who conducted the specific stairss of an experiment or study, the focal point is on the events instead than the people responsible for these events.

In general, the four subdivisions can be characterized as follows:

Screen 2c: The Nature of Reports III: Partss of an Introduction

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

The debut subdivision of a study

The debut needs to be carefully crafted to show both an in-depth cognition of what is traveling on in the general research country and an acute consciousness of what could—and should—still be done. In other words, an debut foremost has to sketch the context of the study ‘s subject and supply an overview of the bing research in the field. In the instance of the study on velocity enforcement cameras, this means that general information on the usage of surveillance cameras is followed by a literature reappraisal sketching how their effectivity for commanding traffic has antecedently been studied. This literature reappraisal so leads to the sensing of a methodological spread. Based on this, specific research on the attitude of drivers is eventually suggested in order to make full that spread. Thus, an debut normally ends with a suggestion of the nature and intent of the work and, in some instances, the value and construction of the study.

Screen 2d: The Nature of Reports IV: Descriptions of Methods and Consequences

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

The methods and consequences subdivision

The methods subdivision should supply as much item of the processs applied during the research as would be necessary to reiterate the survey. It describes both the stuffs and the analytical tools that were used and how precisely the research was conducted. For case, the mini-report on velocity enforcement cameras references who was interviewed, which inquiries were asked and how the replies were processed.

The consequences subdivision has a double intent. On the one manus, the result of the research is presented in authorship every bit good as in the signifier of tabular arraies and / or graphs, and, on the other manus, this presentation is accompanied by assorted types of commentary. Such commentary normally focuses on the reading and account of the findings. However, it can besides include, as in the instance of the traffic control survey, a justification of the methods and comparings with the informations of other authors.

Screen 2e: The Nature of Reports V: Discussions of the Result

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

The treatment subdivision

The treatment subdivision allows for the most assortment in length, focal point, and manner. As it leads back to the larger issues introduced at the beginning of the study, it is supposed to non merely sum up the consequences but to research their broader significance every bit good. Therefore, it can sketch the deductions for the research field either by naming for farther research or by urging practical action. The treatment can, nevertheless, besides be used to measure the research undertaking by indicating at methodological defects, troubles in construing informations, ideational restrictions, or any other jobs or mistakes. The restricted range of the velocity enforcement survey, for illustration, is highlighted to indicate out the limited value of the consequences, which, in bend, raises the demand for farther research in the field.

Pop-up Text for Screens 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, and 2e: “ The Impact of Speed Enforcement Cameras: A Case Study of the Attitudes of Commuters in North London ”

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Introduction

One of the most obvious features of contemporary London is the prevalence of surveillance cameras. In fact, London has been called the “ surveillance capital of the universe ” ( Barr, 2004 ) . While many of these cameras are used for offense bar, others are supposed to observe traffic misdemeanors such as hurrying and red-light running. Yet how effectual velocity enforcement cameras truly are, is disputed. While Corbett and Simon ( 1999 ) have argued that they influence merely certain types of drivers, Mountain et Al. ( 2004 and 2005 ) , for case, have maintained that they help reducinge the mean rate of personal hurt accidents—a claim supported by the findings of Perez et Al. ( 2007 ) . Most of the bing surveies have, nevertheless, focused on the existent figure of traffic accidents before and after the installing of velocity cameras, instead than the reactions of drivers in general. And, even though Corbett and Simon did analyze such reactions, they limited their probe to inquiring how the hazard of sensing caused conformity with velocity bounds. Previous research has, therefore, failed to see the overall impact of the presence of velocity cameras on the general public presentation of automobilists. The intent of this study is, hence, to measure the psychological effects of velocity control cameras in order to better measure their influence on the behavior of regular drivers.

Methods

A late installed velocity enforcement camera on a 30 miles per hour stretch of the North Circular Road in Finchley, North London, was chosen as the survey instance. This country is dominated by commuter traffic so that the attitudes of the same drivers before and after the installing of the camera could be investigated. For this intent, one 1000 representative drivers of all ages who on a regular basis pass the velocity camera were foremost selected utilizing the quota trying method. These sources were so extensively interviewed with inquiries concentrating on their drive wonts in general and the sensed influence of the new velocity control measures in peculiar. Finally, the replies were statistically analyzed and checked against existent observations of driving forms.

Consequences

Most of the interviewed drivers reported that the installing of the velocity camera had affected their impulsive behavior. This does, nevertheless, non connote that all of these automobilists drive more safely. As Table 1 indicates, the bulk of the interviewees feels instead distracted by the camera and, therefore, focuses more on following with the velocity bound than on detecting its drive in general. The attending of a important per centum of middle-aged and older drivers, in peculiar, is diverted off from a comprehensive perceptual experience of other facets of the traffic. While younger drivers are more likely to non experience negatively affected by the presence of the camera, this probe of drivers ‘ attitudes towards the being of velocity cameras, however, reveals surprising behavior forms that are non taken into history by the surveies of Mountain et Al. ( 2004 and 2005 ) or Perez ( 2007 ) .

age group

no alteration in attitude

feeling of increased security

feeling of distraction

below 25

30 %

35 %

35 %

25-39

20 %

40 %

40 %

40-59

5 %

25 %

70 %

60 and above

5 %

20 %

75 %

Entire

15 %

30 %

55 %

Table 1. Chemical reactions to the velocity enforcement camera harmonizing to age groups.

Discussion

As the probe of the psychological effects of the velocity camera in Finchley has shown, the impact of velocity control steps can non be reduced to a decrease of traffic accidents. Rather, it seems that, under certain fortunes, such steps may act upon drivers in complex ways. Therefore, the installing of velocity cameras should be considered carefully in order to avoid rearward effects. As this recommendation is, nevertheless, based on the survey of merely one peculiar instance, farther research on how speed cameras influence drivers ‘ attitudes in different contexts is needed to prove in how far the consequences of this study can be generalized.

Note

While this study is based on existent state of affairss and mentions, its set-up and consequences are wholly ficticious

Where do you desire to include this information?

Screen 3: What is a Report?

Exercise type: Multiple Choice

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Which of the undermentioned research subjects is likely to be documented in the signifier of a study?

? The thought of democracy in Abraham Lincoln ‘s Gettysburg Address. [ No ]

? Testing the adaptability of large-scale automatons in fake interactions with worlds. [ Yes ]

? New poetry signifiers as looks of businessperson esthesia in early modern England. [ No ]

? An rating of the execution of proposals for prison reform in modern-day Canada. [ Yes ]

? The kineticss of cacao agroforestry in the locality of the Lore Lindu National Park in cardinal Sulawesi. [ Yes ]

? The altering image of Nelson Mandela in European and North American newspapers, 1990-2005. [ No ]

? Measuring the snap of assorted stuffs used in back uping beams of high-rise edifices. [ Yes ]

? The impact of Tata Motor ‘s Nano auto on the mobility of the Indian in-between category. [ Yes ]

Screen 4: Sections of Reports

Exercise type: Drag to Container

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Please drag the undermentioned possible elements of a study to the subdivision in which they are most likely to be covered.

Card games with the several elements:

[ Definitions ]

[ Presentation of a job ]

[ Survey of bing research ]

[ Listing of hypotheses ]

[ Characterisation of samples ]

[ Set-up of an experiment ]

[ Data analysis techniques ]

[ Questionnaire design ]

[ Figures showing findings ]

[ Comparison of tabulated information ]

[ Analysis of informations ]

[ Applicability of the consequences ]

[ Restrictions of the research ]

[ Suggestions for farther research ]

[ Practical recommendations ]

Card games with the several classs:

[ Introduction ]

[ Methods ]

[ Results ]

[ Discussion ]

Screen 5a: Introducing Reports I: Mentions to Existing Research

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Referencing bing research

In order to contextualize a study, its debut contains an overview of old research in the signifier of a literature reappraisal. This involves a series of mentions to both the research countries and the specific thoughts or attacks of the bing literature. Depending on the several map of the mention, assorted forms of commendation can be used.

Mentions to the general subject or the country of enquiry developed in a peculiar survey appear in two basic types:

O Statements that focus on individual surveies and the activity of the research worker ( s ) use the past tense ( active or inactive ) :
Mountain et Al. ( 2005 ) investigated the impact of assorted velocity direction strategies.
Assorted types of velocity direction strategies were compared by Mountain et Al. ( 2005 ) .

O Statements that focus on an country of enquiry use the present perfect ( active or inactive ) :
There have been several surveies of the effectivity of velocity cameras ( Mountain et al. , 2005 ; Perez et al. , 2007 ) .
The effectivity of velocity control measures has been widely researched ( Mountain et al. , 2005 ; Perez et al. , 2007 ) .

Screen 5b: Introducing Reports II: Mentions to Existing Research ( cont. )

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Mentions to specific points or thoughts stated in a peculiar survey follow are normally paraphrased:

As Mountain et Al. ( 2005 ) have shown, the assorted velocity direction schemes show unusually few differences ( 753 ) .
Harmonizing to Mountain et al. ( 2005 ) , the bing safety surveies are non at all straightforward ( 743 ) .

Mentions to research with similar findings can be generalised in the present tense. Here, the beginnings are listed at the terminal of the sentence in parentheses:

The effects of velocity cameras on drive forms are really complex ( Mountain et al. , 2005 ; Perez et al. , 2007 ) .

Speed direction appears to be an intricate issue ( Mountain et al. , 2005 ; Perez et al. , 2007 ) .

Screen 5c: Introducing Reports III: Showing the Need for Further Research

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Once the bing literature is reviewed, it is of import to demo the demand for farther research. For this intent, the undermentioned schemes can be employed:

O Arguing that there is a spread in the old research
The methods applied by Mountain et Al. ( 2005 ) and Perez et Al. ( 2007 ) fail to acknowledge the demand for personal testimonies.

O Establishing a place that contrasts with that of an bing survey
Perez et Al. ( 2007 ) have focused on the figure of route hits, as opposed to the driving wonts of persons.

O Claiming mistakes in old research
While Mountain et Al. ( 2005 ) claim that the different velocity control strategies have similar effects ( 253 ) , this does non sound plausible when drivers ‘ reactions to these strategies are considered.

O Raising a inquiry about the province of research
The inquiry remains whether the investigated attacks to traffic control have similar effects in different contexts.

O Proposing the farther development of an bing survey in some manner
This survey applies the attack of Perez et Al. ( 2007 ) to non-urban roads with a higher velocity bound.

Screen 6: Referencing

Exercise type: Missing Wordss

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

To develop proper commendations, delight travel each of the verb signifiers in the boxes to the appropriate topographic point in the sentences below.

[ have been ] – [ have shown ] – [ has been investigated ] – [ cut down ] – [ remains ] – [ seems ] – [ studied ] – [ was analysed ]

Harmonizing to Perez et Al. ( 2007 ) , velocity cameras efficaciously [ cut down ] the figure of route hits ( 1636 ) .

Perez et Al. ( 2007 ) [ studied ] the impact of velocity cameras in an urban scene.

The impact of velocity surveillance [ has been investigated ] extensively ( Mountain et al. , 2005 ; Perez et al. , 2007 ) .

Traffic control [ seems ] to be a complex job ( Mountain et al. , 2005 ; Perez et al. , 2007 ) .

As Perez et Al. ( 2007 ) [ have shown ] , “ the protective consequence of velocity cameras is apparent ” ( 753 ) .

There [ have been ] a series of surveies on traffic control measures ( Mountain et al. , 2005 ; Perez et al. , 2007 ) .

The usage of velocity enforcement cameras [ remains ] a combative issue ( Mountain et al. , 2005 ; Perez et al. , 2007 ) .

The impact of velocity cameras in an urban environment [ was analysed ] ( analyse ) by Perez et Al. ( 2007 ) .

Screen 7: Stressing a Research Gap

Exercise type: Connect It

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

The undermentioned statements point at research spreads in different ways. Please do complete sentences by fiting each of the phrases on the left with the remainder of the sentence on the right.

[ It has been erroneously assumed ]

[ that speed surveillance automatically reduces the hazard of traffic accidents. ]

[ The probe by Perez et Al. ( 2007 ) ]

[ fails to take into history the impact of velocity cameras in rural countries. ]

[ This study uses the penetrations of Mountain et Al. ( 2005 ) ]

[ to farther look into the different types of velocity direction strategies. ]

[ Research on the psychological impact of traffic control ]

[ is long delinquent. ]

[ It would be of involvement to analyze ]

[ how the different traffic control steps are perceived by victims of route accidents. ]

Screen 8: Stressing the Need for Further Research

Exercise type: Unscramble Wordss

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Please rearrange the phrases in the undermentioned five sentences to organize statements that clearly indicate a demand for farther research.

1. [ Mountain et Al. ( 2005 ) ] / [ have underestimated ] / [ the impact ] / [ of seasonal emphasis ] / [ on the attitude ] / [ of drivers ] / [ towards velocity cameras ] .

2. [ The research ] / [ by Perez et Al. ( 2007 ) ] / [ has emphasized ] / [ the figure ] / [ of hurts ] , [ instead than ] / [ the behavior ] / [ of automobilists ] .

3. [ It seems sensible ] / [ to inquire ] / [ how ] / [ velocity direction schemes ] / [ are perceived ] / [ by the population ] .

4. [ Previous research ] / [ does non turn to ] / [ the issue of ] / [ the route public presentation ] [ of immature drivers ] .

5. [ Although ] / [ considerable research ] / [ has been devoted ] / [ to the consequence ] / [ of velocity cameras ] / [ on accident rates ] , / [ instead less attending ] / [ has been paid ] / [ to the drivers ‘ attitude ] / [ towards traffic control measures ] .

Screen 9a: Describing Methods I: Chronology

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Describing methods

When depicting a method, it is of import to show its single stairss in the right order. Following an introductory statement that characterizes the method in general footings, each of these stairss should, therefore, be arranged chronologically. Assorted cohesive markers can be used for this intent. These include:

O markers which figure the single phases for easier mention:

First ( of all ) / First

Second / Second
Third / Third

Last / Finally

O markers which highlight the sequence of events:

Following
Then
After that
Based on this




Screen 9b: Describing Methods II: Nominalisations

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

An of import characteristic of methods ( every bit good as consequences ) subdivisions is the inclination to concentrate on general constructs instead than specific actions or events. This means that the of import information is preponderantly expressed as a noun or in a noun phrase. Verbal looks are, hence, frequently nominalised ( changed into nouns ) , as in the undermentioned illustration:

This research investigated the extent to which velocity cameras influenced how drivers behaved when they were stressed.

This probe was conducted to find the influence of velocity cameras on drivers ‘ behaviors under conditions of emphasis.

The first version emphasizes a series of events expressed through verbs. The 2nd version uses the same thoughts but expresses them through nouns. The consequence of such nominalisations is to do the authorship more dense and abstract and, therefore, more academic.

Screen 10: Describing a Procedure

Exercise type: Unscramble Sentences

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Keeping in head the standards for forming a method description chronologically, delight rearrange the undermentioned six sentences to organize a clear and consistent text.

[ In order to obtain a representative feedback from drivers sing the consequence of velocity enforcement cameras, interviewees were selected harmonizing to the quota trying method. ] – first

[ First of all, for the intent of this survey, gender and age groups were identified as relevant subsets of the population. ] – second

[ After that, the existent representation of the identified subsets in the full population was calculated. ] – 3rd

[ Next, the needed figure of interviewees from each subset was determined. ] – 4th

[ Based on this, appropriate topics were chosen for the interviews. ] – fifth

[ Finally, the interviews were conducted, utilizing the same questionnaire for all of them. ] – sixth

Screen 11: Exploitation Nominalisations

Exercise type: Gap Fill

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

In the text below, delight fill in the spreads with a nominalised signifier of one of the undermentioned verbs.

[ allocate ] – [ choose ] – [ attention ] – [ co-ordinate ] – [ create ] – [ distribute ] – [ enforce ] – [ investigate ] – [ prefer ] – [ cut down ] – [ rely ] – [ select ]

For the [ probe ] of drivers ‘ attitudes towards speed [ enforcement ] cameras, the quota trying method was given [ penchant ] because it allowed for the most valid [ choice ] of representative topics. However, in order to see the study ‘s [ dependability ] , some other facets had to be considered as good: as the [ decrease ] of trying mistakes was a premier concern, the [ pick ] of topics had to follow a precise program. At the same clip, the [ creative activity ] of the questionnaire was carried out with extreme [ attention ] to avoid any ambiguities during the interviewing procedure. Finally, the [ distribution ] of the questionnaires and the [ allotment ] of interviewees among the interviewers, required careful [ coordination ] .

Screen 12a: Presenting and Discussing Results I: Use of Verbs

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

In a study, the exact consequences of the research are normally presented in the signifier of tabular arraies and line or saloon graphs. The descriptive text so refers to these and generalizes their informations. In order to set up such a mention, the text needs to be linked to the tabular array or figure in one of two ways ( either of which can be used with active or inactive buildings ) :

O The mention can simply bespeak the type of research conducted:

Table 1 shows the one-year traffic accident alteration.

The distribution of accidents by age group is shown in Figure 2.

Verbs used in such buildings include: demonstrate, depict, show, illustrate, indicate, present, supply.

O The mention can concentrate on the findings themselves:

Table 3 shows that speed cameras are less effectual in commanding traffic than other steps.
As shown in Figure 4, the impact of velocity cameras is highest in urban countries.

Verbs used in such buildings include: demonstrate, illustrate, imply, indicate, reveal, suggest.

Screen 12b: Presenting and Discussing Results II: Qualifying a Statement

Exercise type: Input signal

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

Qualifying statements when discoursing consequences

The broader treatment of the consequences and their deductions frequently includes instead generalised statements. Based on good opinion, such statements should be expressed rather carefully, utilizing measure uping or fudging to “ soften ” a point.

Using an all excessively general claim such as

Speed cameras prevent accidents.

as illustration, four basic types of makings can be distinguished:

O The usage of specific looks can weaken a generalisation:

Under certain fortunes, velocity cameras prevent accidents.

O The average verbs may or might replace certainty with chance:

Speed cameras may forestall accidents.

O Mentions to external beginnings create distance from the general claim:

Harmonizing to scientific surveies, velocity cameras prevent accidents.

O A weaker verb softens the inevitableness of the claim:

Speed cameras cut down the figure of accidents.

Speed cameras tend to forestall accidents.

Screen 13: Qualifications

Exercise type: Gap Fill with Drop Down

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

For each of the spreads in the text below, delight take the look from the drop-down bill of fare that best qualifies the several statement.

Speed enforcement cameras are [ frequently considered / by all agencies ] * a good step to increase traffic safety. [ Harmonizing to Mountain et al. ( 2005 ) / As a affair of fact ] , they [ aid cut down / cut down ] the figure of traffic accidents. However, [ as Corbett and Simon ( 1999 ) have argued / as everyone knows ] , this [ might be / is ] true merely for [ certain types / all ] of drivers. They distinguish between the alleged “ conformers ” who [ normally / ever ] comply with velocity bounds anyhow, the “ deterred ” who [ tend to / will ] cut down their velocity merely to avoid sensing, the “ operators ” who [ may / decidedly ] decelerate down on attack of a camera, and the “ defiers ” who, [ in most fortunes / decidedly ] , continue driving above the velocity bound. ( see Corbett and Simon, 1999, [ vi ] ) . Therefore, it can be said that velocity cameras merely [ support / warrant ] traffic safety.

* Two picks are given for each spread. The right pick is the first, underlined one.

Screen 14: Decision

Exercise type: Input/Information

Texts necessitating copyright permission: none

In this faculty you have learned how to:

O acknowledge research studies

O construction your study

O provide mentions to bing research in a literature reappraisal

O express the demand for making farther research

O describe a process chronologically

O usage nominalizations to concentrate on constructs and things

O represent findings through mentions to tabular arraies and figures

O express yourself carefully