Renewable resources in Ukraine Essay

The Ministry of Science and Education of Ukraine

National Technical University of Ukraine

& # 171 ; KPI & # 187 ;

Essay

on the subject:

RENEWABLE RESOURCES

IN UKRAINE

Performed by:

5th
twelvemonth pupil

group ET-41,

Tuma Oleg.V.

Kiev 2006

Ukraine is an energy-rich democracy. It has resources of coal, gas and oil. However, there continues to be a deficit between domestic primary energy production and demand as a consequence of low investing in domestic capacity. Approximately one-third of Ukraine ‘s primary energy is sourced from coal, while another 3rd is from gas. Nuclear power plays an of import function in electricity production, supplying 30-40 % of electricity supply.

In 1993 renewable energy resources accounted for less than 1 % of primary energy demand. This was chiefly accounted by the usage of big graduated table hydro to bring forth electricity, and wood used as a domestic warming fuel. There has been small development of renewable energy due to historically low dodo fuel monetary values and no demand to see security of energy supply. There has been important research and development carried out in Ukraine, in peculiarly wind power and solar power. However, these markets have hardly developed beyond presentation systems. There is considerable renewable resource in Ukraine, but today this has non been widely developed. As fuel monetary values are raised to market degrees and authorities implements programmes to back up and advance renewable energy and energy efficiency, the future function for renewable energy is considerable. In 1996 the National Energy Programme was adopted in Ukrainian parliament, in which much attending is paid to weave, solar and geothermic energy every bit good as assorted biomass resources. Particularly the Ukrainian air current fund is designed to back up the execution of 100MW of capacity each twelvemonth with a mark of 2000MW by 2010. The authorities has besides passed a declaration to help the development of geothermic electric power, which aims to spread out installed capacity to 6000 MW over 10 old ages.

Renewable energy installed capacities

There are so many obliging grounds why it is clip to travel off from utilizing atomic power and fossil fuels to bring forth energy: clime alteration, radioactive taint, atomic proliferation, the unresolved job of atomic waste, air and H2O pollution, resource depletion, and of class the demand to make a sustainable energy system based on autochthonal renewable resources. A planetary committedness must be made to phase-out atomic power and fossil fuels. Technology is one of the keys, but the manner these engineerings are managed and financed is merely every bit of import as the manner they work. With equal resourcing this engineering can be used to convey an terminal to the atomic and fossil fuel incubus and to get down a realistic clean energy programme for future coevalss.

Energy efficiency equipment should be cost-efficient and easy to put in. It should besides be dependable, lasting, and suited for widespread application. Renewable energy engineerings should be convenient to utilize, easy to run and keep, and be economically competitory. They should be durable and their installing and operation should non earnestly disrupt human colonies or sensitive ecosystems. Finally, they should bring forth well more energy over a life-time than is invested in their building and operation. Central & A ; Eastern Europe can either go on to run expensive unsafe and fouling atomic power workss, or get down to implement new policies which will guarantee that renewable energy systems are developed by having the political and fiscal support they deserve. It is all excessively easy to indicate to old edifices that waste energy, to inefficient industries and so on, but these instance surveies show that political will can change over old edifices and transform industrial procedures. Unfortunately, such committedness still remains the exclusion instead than the regulation. Governments still subsidise and promote the inefficient and fouling engineerings of the yesteryear. The same is besides true of the International Funding Institutions. The part does hold the power to alter. The successful undertakings give some illustrations of how it can be done. Interrupting the dependence to atomic power will necessitate unprecedented political committedness, but the wellness and security of future coevalss depend on it. In Central and Eastern Europe, energy efficiency offers one of the best chances for decreasing dependance on atomic power and cut downing the clime impacts of fouling fossil fuels. However, authoritiess in the part continue to put big amounts of money in atomic power undertakings, whilst outgo on energy preservation has been minimum. Besides, the European Union, through Euratom, continues to put one million millions of ECU into developing atomic power in the part. Following the Chernobyl atomic accident in 1986, there were legion energy efficiency surveies carried out in Ukraine. These surveies developed by establishments such as the World Bank and the European Union have shown a immense potency for energy nest eggs. The Ukrainian authorities has besides set up a State Committee on Energy Conservation which has the undertaking of co-ordinating and implementing a national energy nest eggs scheme. In it & # 8217 ; s outline papers for a & # 8216 ; Comprehensive Energy Efficiency Programme & # 8217 ; , the Committee has shown that 42-48 % of Ukraine & # 8217 ; s entire energy ingestion ( utilizing 1990 as a base burden ) could be avoided. A balanced energy policy for any state should take at energy efficiency with a long-run programme of execution of renewable beginnings of energy. Energy from the air current, the Sun and the H2O is invariably available and produces few environmental jobs compared with other beginnings of energy. The intervention of wastes such as biomass, pull outing & # 8216 ; geothermic & # 8217 ; energy from the Earth and small-scale hydroelectric strategies besides offer good possibilities. The official position from many authoritiess around the universe, nevertheless, is that renewable energy will be unable to supply more than a little proportion of our energy demands until good into the following century. This pessimistic perceptual experience is straight related to the deficiency of support which has been made available for research and development. The key to success is good planning and a complimentary mix of renewable energy beginnings. The function that renewable energy beginnings could play in Central and Eastern Europe is badly underestimated by determination shapers.

The Ukrainian governments are in favor of air current energy. Development of air current energy engineerings and use of air current resources are component to it & # 8217 ; s electricity policy. The Ministry of Power and Electrification set a end of the twelvemonth 2010 of seting into operation a air current power production capacity supplying non less than 5 % of the electricity production of Ukraine, the equivalent of 15TWh. This is a good start, but does non travel far plenty. There are of class many jobs associated with the production and execution of these sorts of engineerings in the part. The biggest is that there is about no market for this equipment: the manufacturers do non cognize how to sell the solar panel or air current generators they produce, while possible clients do non cognize where to purchase such installings. This one time once more underscores the pressing demand for authorities, concern and banking co-operation and coaction.

GeothermalGeothermal energy refers to the heat within the Earth & # 8217 ; s surface that can be recovered and used for practical intents. The Earth & # 8217 ; s run nucleus serves as the beginning of this subterraneous heat, which is brought near the surface by belowground volcanic activity. Molten stone intrudes into the Earth & # 8217 ; s crust, heating groundwater to make the steam and hot H2O that are potentially recovered as feasible geothermic resources. These “ hydrothermal ” resources are typically recovered with well-drilling equipment, and so employed near the point of extraction. For bring forthing electricity, hot H2O is brought to the surface and “ flashed ” to steam by the release of force per unit area from specially designed vass. In parts where geothermic resources are of lesser quality, binary works engineering is frequently employed. This engineering uses the hot H2O to blink a secondary & # 8211 ; or “ working ” & # 8211 ; fluid ( one with a lower boiling temperature ) , therefore supplying a gas to straight replace for the steam. The steam is so used to drive a turbine, which accordingly operates an affiliated generator. Internationally, at least 21 of the universe & # 8217 ; s states generate electricity from geothermic energy, while up to 40 states use geothermic resources for domestic direct warming intents.

Wind energy

There is great possible for air current power energy in Ukraine. If, for case, the 2,700 sq.km. of shallow Waterss in the Black and Asov Seas were used for air current turbines, this would cover the full electricity ingestion of Ukraine. After the Chernobyl accident, several efforts were made to develop air current turbines in Ukraine. The most successful has been the joint venture Windenergo. It was created as a coaction of a figure of former military companies that have the necessary fabrication installations and a USA-based company, Kennetec Windpower. Their first type of air current turbine is a 107-kW turbine, of which three started their operation in May 1993. Now 60 of these turbines are running near Donuzlav Bay in Cremea. A new theoretical account of air current turbine has been developed with a capacity of 250 kilowatt. Three turbines of this type are now in operation. Beside the Ukrainian air current turbines, the Windenergo produces parts for Kennetec air current turbines runing in the USA, which is partially financing the engagement of Kennetec. The monetary value for each turbine was ab initio $ 23,000 US, good below universe market monetary value. Now the monetary value is $ 50,000 US, which is near to universe market monetary value. The monetary value addition is due to higher overhead costs of the companies because of a decreased of other production. Increased competition and restructuring are expected to convey monetary values down once more. The wind-electricity is produced at 2.0 US cents/kWh and sold for 2.4 US cents/kWh to the power company. The consumer monetary value is 3.1 US cents/kWh. In 1994, the authorities of Ukraine created a fund for building of air current turbines. The initial end was to finance 100 MW of air current turbines. Since so, the determination has been made to back up extra development utilizing portion of the national duty on electricity. Thus, 0.5 % of consumer electricity payments, equal to $ 15 million US yearly, will be allocated to the fund. The official Ukrainian energy program includes the installing of 2000 MW wind turbines by the twelvemonth 2010. This will cover 10 % of the Ukrainian demand for electricity.There is a great potency for air current energy in Ukraine. Particularly, Crimean seashores make Ukraine the 2nd state in the universe ( after Norway ) in shallow H2O countries that are suited for big air current farms. At present about 40 industrial endeavors, antecedently under legal power of the military-industrial constitution, are engaged in the production procedure of accredited units for the turbines USW 56-100. These wind turbines are assembled at the Industrial Complex “ Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant ” ( PO “ Yuzny Mashinostroitel’nyi Zavod ” ) in Dnipropetrovsk. The first three modern windmills in Ukraine were installed in May 1993 in the Crimea within Donuzlav Bay. In 1994, one GWh of electric energy was generated.

Solar energy is clean energy

Even when the emanations related to solar cell fabrication are counted, photovoltaic coevals produces less than 15 % of the C dioxide from a conventional coal-burning power works. Using solar energy to replace the usage of traditional dodo fuel energy beginnings can forestall the release of pollutants into the ambiance. Using solar energy to provide a million places with energy would cut down CO2 emanations by 4.3 million dozenss per twelvemonth, the equivalent of taking 850,000 autos from the route.

Solar energy uses fewer natural resources than conventional energy beginnings. Using energy from sunshine can replace the usage of stored energy in natural resources such as crude oil, natural gas, and coal. Fossil fuel extraction can utilize boring and excavation techniques that leave land unwanted for other utilizations after the energy beginning has been removed. Photovoltaic ( PV ) panels can be integrated into edifice surfaces for the production of power, extinguishing extra land usage. For illustration, the 100,000 square pes R

oof of a typical price reduction retail merchant could bring forth more than a megawatt of solar electricity.

Solar energy systems need less infinite to bring forth a megawatt of electricity than coal-burning power when the land devoted to excavation is factored in. No land is required when solar systems are integrated into edifices.

Solar energy is a renewable resource. Some scientists and industry experts estimate that renewable energy beginnings, such as solar, can provide up to half of the universe ‘s energy demand in the following 50 old ages, even as energy demands continue to turn. To avoid an energy crisis, we need to get down switching our energy trust off from our finite supply of fossil fuels and towards renewable energy beginnings such as solar.

Enough sunlight reaches the Earth ‘s surface every twelvemonth to bring forth about 1,000 times the sum of energy produced by firing all fossil fuels mined and extracted during the same clip period. If this energy is efficaciously captured, it could run into human energy demands indefinitely.

In drumhead, solar energy is a smart energy pick.

Energy Use

At 6.4 quadrillion Btu ( quads ) in 1999, Ukraine ‘s energy ingestion histories for 1.7 % of the universe ‘s entire. In 1998, the state ‘s huge industrial sector accounted for a disproportional 61 % portion of the state ‘s entire, with residential standing at 16 % , transit at 14 % , and commercial 9 % . In 1999, natural gas ingestion represented the largest per centum of energy ingestion at 44 % , with coal and oil at 30 % and 11.8 % , severally.Looking at recent tendencies, Ukraine has followed a continual form of decreased energy ingestion. Since 1992, Ukraine energy ingestion has dropped from 8.86 quads to 6.43 quads in 1999 — a 27 % bead. This figure is even more impressive when compared to Ukraine ‘s neighbors that are besides in passage to market economic systems. Merely Russia, which saw a 25 % lessening ( from 34.9 quads to 26.0 quads ) , experienced a similar form. Unfortunately, much of the decreased energy ingestion in Ukraine is due non to energy salvaging or energy efficiency but instead to the prostration in industrial production because of the contraction of the economic system. As a non-Annex I state under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and a signer to the Kyoto Protocol in 1999, Ukraine has agreed to stabilise its emanations of nursery gases at 1990 degrees by 2008-2012. Since Ukraine ‘s emanations are already more than 30 % below 1990 degrees, Ukraine has the potency to play a major function in clime alteration dialogues.

Energy Intensity

In footings of energy ingestion per dollar of GDP, Ukraine ranks as one of the most energy-intensive states in the universe because of its inefficient, Soviet-era industries. Ukraine ‘s energy strength in 1999 at 101.3 thousand Btu/ $ 1990 was more than 8 times that of the United States ( 12.6 thousand Btu/ $ 1990 ) and more than 15 times that of Japan ( 6.5 thousand Btu/ $ 1990 ) . Even more relation is the fact that Ukraine ‘s energy strength is well higher than any of its fellow passage neighbors — including Russia. In 1999, Poland ‘s energy strength was 28.6 1000 Btu/ $ 1990, Turkey ‘s 14.9 thousand Btu/ $ 1990, Romania ‘s 55.1 Btu/ $ 1990, and Russia ‘s 72.1 thousand Btu/ $ 1990.On the per capita degree, Ukraine is more comparable to other states in passage. Ukraine ‘s per capita energy ingestion in 1999 was 127.0 million Btu — well lower than the U.S. value of 288.9 million Btu, but closer to Russia ( 176.7 million Btu ) and above Poland ( 99.3 million Btu ) , Romania ( 73.1 million Btu ) , and Turkey ( 45.9 million Btu ) . Similarly, per capita C emanations in Ukraine were 2.1 metric dozenss of C per individual in 1999 ; this figure is once more lower than both the United States ( 4.4 metric dozenss ) and Russia ( 2.7 metric dozenss ) while higher than Romania ( 1.1 ) and Turkey ( 0.8 ) The Ukrainian authorities has taken several concrete actions to advance lower energy ingestion and better energy efficiency. The National Energy Conservation Information Network was set up to circulate energy preservation information to the general populace, and an international plan with the Alliance to Save Energy is assisting beef up the function of Ukraine ‘s nongovernmental organisations and the private sector in raising public consciousness of the benefits of energy efficiency. In add-on, the United States Agency for International Development, in concurrence with the World Environment & # 1089 ; enter, is back uping 18 waste minimization/energy preservation presentation undertakings at 10 endeavors located in the Donetsk and Dnipropetrovsk parts of Ukraine. The usage of renewable energy in Ukraine was one of the chief ends of the 1996 National Power Energy Program. In 1999, nevertheless, renewable energy beginnings represented merely 8.6 % of electricity coevals, a figure that includes hydropower, solar, air current, tide, geothermic, solid biomass and animate being merchandises, biomass gas and liquids, and industrial and municipal wastes. This figure appears low, but it can partly be explained by the fact that the development of renewable resources in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union remains limited chiefly to enlargement or renovation of bing hydroelectric units. Indeed, the National Power Energy Program called for completion of new hydropower public-service corporations — such as the Dn & # 1077 ; strovskaja hydro pumping storage station — to cut down dependance on imported energy beginnings. Yet, renewable energy beginnings are get downing to happen a market in Ukraine. In the Carpathian part of the state, the Environmentally Sound Business Development undertaking is concentrating on little concern development in wood processing industry to increase the efficiency of the production procedure by cut downing lumber usage, waste merchandises, and energy ingestion. In add-on, as portion of an alternate energy beginning plan, the Ukrainian State Geology Committee and the Ministry of Coal — along with the United States Agency for International Development, Ukrainian coal companies, and the U.S. coal bed methane industry — are working to place chances to develop coal bed methane as a commercially feasible alternate energy beginning in Ukraine. In add-on, the Ukrainian parliament passed a measure in July 2001 that aims to develop alternate energy beginnings such as solar, and geothermic. Additionally, through the Wind Power Development Project, Ukraine seeks to set up air current power as a important beginning of electricity coevals by 2020. Of the renewable energy beginnings, merely hydro power makes a important part to Ukraine ‘s electricity supply at present. About 8.7 % of entire installed capacity is accounted for by hydro workss, but this generates 14.3 bln kWh or about 8 % of the state ‘ electricity, table 3. Part of the ground for this low use factor is the fact that most of the major hydro Stationss are located on the Dnipro River, on which the flow is extremely seasonable. However, some of the hydro works is used at least partially to supply much-needed peaking capacity, to keep system stableness.

In conformity with the National Energy Programme of Ukraine, in 2000 the portion of renewables in Ukraine ‘s net coevals of electricity had to be 0.8 % or 2.1 bln kWh. Because of terrible budget constrains during the old five old ages, this programme has non been fulfilled. Actually, less than 10 % of needed financess have been assigned for renewable energy in 1996- 2000. Therefore, we can see that in 1999 the existent portion of renewables was about 0.08 % .

Drumhead

Ukraine is an energy-rich democracy. It has resources of coal, gas and oil. However, there continues to be a deficit between domestic primary energy production and demand as a consequence of low investing in domestic capacity. In 1993 renewable energy resources accounted for less than 1 % of primary energy demand. This was chiefly accounted by the usage of big graduated table hydro to bring forth electricity, and wood used as a domestic warming fuel. There has been small development of renewable energy due to historically low dodo fuel monetary values and no demand to see security of energy supply. There has been important research and development carried out in Ukraine, in peculiarly wind power and solar power. However, these markets have hardly developed beyond presentation systems. There is considerable renewable resource in Ukraine, but today this has non been widely developed. There are so many obliging grounds why it is clip to travel off from utilizing atomic power and fossil fuels to bring forth energy: clime alteration, radioactive taint, atomic proliferation, the unresolved job of atomic waste, air and H2O pollution, resource depletion, and of class the demand to make a sustainable energy system based on autochthonal renewable resources. A planetary committedness must be made to phase-out atomic power and fossil fuels. Technology is one of the keys, but the manner these engineerings are managed and financed is merely every bit of import as the manner they work. With equal resourcing this engineering can be used to convey an terminal to the atomic and fossil fuel incubus and to get down a realistic clean energy programme for future coevals

Geothermal energy refers to the heat within the Earth & # 8217 ; s surface that can be recovered and used for practical intents. The Earth & # 8217 ; s run nucleus serves as the beginning of this subterraneous heat, which is brought near the surface by belowground volcanic activity. Molten stone intrudes into the Earth & # 8217 ; s crust, heating groundwater to make the steam and hot H2O that are potentially recovered as feasible geothermic resources. These “ hydrothermal ” resources are typically recovered with well-drilling equipment, and so employed near the point of extraction. For bring forthing electricity, hot H2O is brought to the surface and “ flashed ” to steam by the release of force per unit area from specially designed vass. In parts where geothermic resources are of lesser quality, binary works engineering is frequently employed. This engineering uses the hot H2O to blink a secondary & # 8211 ; or “ working ” & # 8211 ; fluid ( one with a lower boiling temperature ) , therefore supplying a gas to straight replace for the steam. The steam is so used to drive a turbine, which accordingly operates an affiliated generator. Internationally, at least 21 of the universe & # 8217 ; s states generate electricity from geothermic energy, while up to 40 states use geothermic resources for domestic direct warming intents.

There is great possible for air current power energy in Ukraine. If, for case, the 2,700 sq.km. of shallow Waterss in the Black and Asov Seas were used for air current turbines, this would cover the full electricity ingestion of Ukraine After the Chernobyl accident, several efforts were made to develop air current turbines in Ukraine. The most successful has been the joint venture Windenergo. It was created as a coaction of a figure of former military companies that have the necessary fabrication installations and a USA-based company, Kennetec Windpower. Their first type of air current turbine is a 107-kW turbine, of which three started their operation in May 1993. Now 60 of these turbines are running near Donuzlav Bay in Cremea. A new theoretical account of air current turbine has been developed with a capacity of 250 kilowatt. Three turbines of this type are now in operation. Beside the Ukrainian air current turbines, the Windenergo produces parts for Kennetec air current turbines runing in the USA, which is partially financing the engagement of Kennetec.

Solar energy is a renewable resource. Using solar energy to replace the usage of traditional dodo fuel energy beginnings can forestall the release of pollutants into the ambiance. Using energy from sunshine can replace the usage of stored energy in natural resources such as crude oil, natural gas, and coal. Fossil fuel extraction can utilize boring and excavation techniques that leave land unwanted for other utilizations after the energy beginning has been removed. Photovoltaic ( PV ) panels can be integrated into edifice surfaces for the production of power, extinguishing extra land usage. For illustration, the 100,000 square pes roof of a typical price reduction retail merchant could bring forth more than a megawatt of solar electricity.

This article was really interesting for me. I have learned a batch of interesting facts about renewable resources of energy. The article is closely connected with my forte so I think it will assist me in doting other topics every bit good as taking my profession. This article was really interesting for me. I have learned a batch of interesting facts about renewable resources of energy. The article is closely connected with my forte so I think it will assist me in doting other topics every bit good as taking my profession.

renewable energy Ukraine

Literature:

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