Republican Party Essay, Research Paper
The Republican party is one of the two major POLITICAL PARTIES in the United States, the other being the DEMOCRATIC PARTY party. It is popularly known as the GOP, from its earlier nickname Grand Old Party. From the clip it ran its first PRESIDENTIAL campaigner, John C. Fremont, in 1856, until the startup of Republican George BUSH in 1989, Republican presidents occupied the WHITE HOUSE for 80 old ages. Traditionally, Republican strength came chiefly from New England and the Midwest. After World War II, nevertheless, it greatly increased in the Sunbelt provinces and the West. Generally speech production, after World War I the Republican party became the more conservative of the two major parties, with its support coming from the upper in-between category and from the corporate, fiscal, and farming involvements. It has taken political stances by and large in favour of laissez- faire, free endeavor, and financial duty ( at least until 1981 ) and against the public assistance province.
The Founding of the Party
Scholars agree that the beginnings of the party grew out of the sectional struggles sing the enlargement of bondage into the new Western districts. The stimulation for political realignment was provided by the transition of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. That jurisprudence repealed earlier via medias that had excluded bondage from the districts. The transition of this act served as the consolidative agent for emancipationists and split the Democrats and the WHIG party. & # 8220 ; Anti-Nebraska & # 8221 ; protest meetings spread quickly through the state. Two such meetings were held in Ripon, Wis. , on Feb. 28 and Mar. 20, 1854, and were attended by a group of abolitionist FREE SOILERS, Democrats, and Whigs. They decided to name themselves Republicans & # 8211 ; because they professed to be political posterities of Thomas JEFFERSON & # 8217 ; s Democratic- Republican party. The name was officially adopted by a province convention held in Jackson, Mich. , on July 6, 1854.
The new party was a success from the beginning. In the 1854 congressional elections 44 Republicans were elected as a portion of the anti-Nebraskan bulk in the HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, and several Republicans were elected to the SENATE and to assorted province houses. In 1856, at the first Republican national convention, Sen. John C. Fremont was nominated for the presidential term but was defeated by Democrat James BUCHANAN. During the run the northern wing of the KNOW-NOTHING PARTY split off and endorsed the Republican ticket, doing the Republicans the principal antislavery party.
Two yearss after the startup of James Buchanan, the Supreme Court handed down the Dred Scott v. Sandford determination, which increased sectional discord and was denounced by the Republicans. At this clip the state was besides gripped by economic pandemonium. Business blamed duty decreases, and Republican leaders called for greater duty protection. The split in the Democratic party over the issue of bondage continued, and in 1858 the Republicans won control of the House of Representatives for the first clip. One Republican who failed that twelvemonth was Abraham LINCOLN, defeated in his command for a U.S. Senate place by Stephen A. Douglas.
Lincoln, the Civil War, and Reconstruction
At the 2nd Republican national convention, in 1860, a hard- fought competition resulted in the presidential nomination of Abraham Lincoln. The Republican platform specifically pledged non to widen bondage and called for passage of free- homestead statute law, prompt constitution of a day-to-day overland mail service, a transcontinental railway, and support of the protective duty. Lincoln was opposed by three major campaigners & # 8211 ; Douglas ( Northern Democrat ) , John Cabell BRECKINRIDGE ( Southern Democrat ) , and John Bell ( Constitutional Union party ) . Lincoln collected about half a million ballots more than Douglas, his nearest rival, but he won the election with merely 39.8 per centum of the popular ballot.
Shortly thenceforth, the Civil War began. Reverses on the battleground, alienation over the bill of exchange and revenue enhancements, and the failures of army leading brought Lincoln and the Republicans into the 1864 election with little hope for triumph. Party leaders saw the demand to broaden the base of the party, and consequently, they adopted the name National Union party. Andrew JOHNSON of Tennessee, a & # 8220 ; War & # 8221 ; Democrat, was nominated as Lincoln & # 8217 ; s running mate. Significant military triumphs intervened before election twenty-four hours and contributed to Lincoln & # 8217 ; s overpowering reelection. After Lincoln & # 8217 ; s assassination the Radical Republicans, led by Sen. Charles Sumner and Rep. Thaddeus Stevens, fought President Johnson & # 8217 ; s moderate Reconstruction policies. Ultimately, dealingss between Johnson and CONGRESS deteriorated, climaxing in impeachment of the president ; he was acquitted by a individual ballot.
The Republican Era
The licking of the South left the Democratic party & # 8211 ; closely allied with the Confederacy & # 8211 ; in shambles. The Republicans, on the other manus, were in the dominance. With the election of Ulysses S. GRANT, the Republicans began a period of national laterality that lasted for more than 70 old ages and was merely on occasion breached by a Democratic triumph. Between 1860 and 1932 the Democrats controlled the White House for merely 16 old ages. Grant & # 8217 ; s disposal, with its support from the northern industrialists who had made lucks in the Civil War, became riddled with dirt and corruptness & # 8211 ; the worst in the state & # 8217 ; s history. Grant was non personally involved, nevertheless, and was renominated in 1872. A split among the Republicans ensued: the more broad elements, opposed to the abrasiveness of the Radical Republicans on the Reconstruction issue and the dirts of the disposal, broke off and took the name Liberal Republican party. They, along with a cabal of the Democratic party, nominative Horace Greeley for president. Despite this resistance, Grant was reelected by a significant border. A continuance of the dirts along with the terror of 1873 caused the Republicans to lose control of the Congress in 1874 in one of the greatest turnovers in history. The Republicans did, nevertheless, emerge from that election with a new party symbol, the elephant, after it foremost appeared in a newspaper sketch by Thomas Nast.
In 1876 the Republicans nominated a practical terra incognita, Rutherford B. HAYES of Ohio. The warring cabals of the party were reunited as Hayes promised to take the federal military personnels from the South and urged civil service reform. The Democratic campaigner, Samuel J. TILDEN of New York, received the greatest figure of popular ballots, but widespread charges of electoral abnormalities led to the assignment of a congressional electoral committee to reexamine the consequences and make up one’s mind who should have disputed ballots in four provinces. The committee, controlled by Republicans, granted all the ballots to Hayes, thereby giving him the election by an electoral-college border of 185 to 184.
The Hayes disposal was tarnished by the agencies in which it came to office but was by and large efficient. Hayes ended Reconstruction, reformed the civil service, and espoused sound money policies. All these actions were unpopular with the old- guard Republicans led by Roscoe Conkling, and Hayes did non seek a 2nd term. Alternatively, James A. GARFIELD was nominated as the Republican campaigner in 1880. Chester A. ARTHUR of New York was nominated for vice-president. After winning a close election, Garfield was assassinated and Arthur became president. In malice of a past record as a & # 8220 ; spoilsman, & # 8221 ; one who placed the party faithful in authorities occupations, Arthur astonished many with his success in acquiring passed the Pendleton Act, making a civil service based on the virtue system. He was ne’er able to derive control of his party, nevertheless, and was the lone president denied renomination by his party & # 8217 ; s convention. James G. Blaine of Maine received the nomination alternatively and faced Democrat Grover CLEVELAND of New York in the 1884 election. In a run that became ill-famed as one of the dirtiest in history, Cleveland, aided by the Mugwups led by Carl Schurz, defeated Blaine by a narrow border.
Much of Cleveland & # 8217 ; s presidential term was dominated by argument over the protective duty. In 1888, after Blaine declined to run, the Republicans chose Benjamin HARRISON of Indiana as their campaigner. Campaigning strongly in favour of the protective duty, Harrison defeated Cleveland by an electoral ballot of 233 to 168, although he received 100,000 fewer popular ballots. For the first clip in old ages the Republicans besides captured both houses of Congress. The Republicans passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, admitted several new provinces to the Union, and passed the extremely protective McKinley Tariff Act.
In the congressional elections of 1890 the party suffered its worst licking since 1874. President Harrison, although non popular within his party, was renominated in 1892 but lost the election to Grover Cleveland. This licking was the worst the Republicans had suffered since the party & # 8217 ; s birth. A terrible depression and the terror of 1893 & # 8211 ; and a by and large lacklustre Cleveland disposal & # 8211 ; provided hope for the Republicans. The coming of a surprisingly strong Populist party in 1892 siphoned off ballots from the Republicans in the boundary line provinces and from the Democrats in the South. Even so, the Populist push was comparatively ephemeral. By binding themselves excessively closely to Free Silver as a major issue the Democrats weakened themselves.
In 1896, William MCKINLEY of Ohio became the Republican campaigner after a run orchestrated by Mark Hanna, a Cleveland politician-businessman who feared the rise of populism and a diminution in concern prosperity. In what many political historiographers believe was the most important election since 1860, McKinley round William Jennings BRYAN by a significant border. McKinley received support from the industrial Northeast and the concern community. Bryan received his ballots from agricultural countries, the South, the West, and from the tuging adult male. These confederations presaged those that were finally to determine the poli
tical alliances of the first half of the twentieth century. The Republicans had committed themselves to conservative economics–a stance that they systematically retained thenceforth.
McKinley & # 8217 ; s first term was dominated by the 10-week-long Spanish-American War ( 1898 ) and the subsequent acquisition of Guam, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and the appropriation of Hawaii. These events progressively thrust the United States into universe political relations. The lone inquiry sing the Republican ticket in 1900 was who would replace Vice-President Garret Hobart who had died the old twelvemonth. Governor Theodore ROOSEVELT of New York was chosen. McKinley once more defeated William Jennings Bryan but was assassinated in 1901. Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in as president, kick offing a singular epoch in American political history.
Theodore Roosevelt and Progressivism
Under Theodore Roosevelt the state saw reforms in economic, political, and societal life. Republicans took the lead in preservation attempts and, to the discouragement of some old loyalists, began implementing Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s trust-busting thoughts. Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s overpowering reelection in 1904 inaugurated a new epoch of regulative statute law and preservation steps. As he had promised, he chose non to run in 1908 and urged the party to put up William Howard TAFT of Ohio.
Taft defeated Bryan, who was running for the 3rd clip ; Taft & # 8217 ; s manner, nevertheless, and his conservativism alienated the progressives within the Republican party. Those progressives, led by Robert M. La Follote of Wisconsin, organized ( 1911 ) the National Progressive Republican League as a agency of wresting party control from the conservativists. At the Chicago convention in 1912, Roosevelt challenged Taft for the nomination. Failing to win, Roosevelt bolted the party and ran as the PROGRESSIVE PARTY campaigner. Thus split, the Republicans resolutely lost the presidential term to Woodrow WILSON.
In 1916 the Republicans nominative Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, but Wilson & # 8217 ; s domestic record, his personal popularity, and his pledge to maintain the United States out of the war in Europe were obstructions excessively great for Hughes to get the better of. Despite Wilson & # 8217 ; s promises, the United States was drawn into World War I, and party political relations gave manner to bipartisan prosecution of the war. Republicans won control of the House of Representatives and the Senate in the 1918 elections and, at the terminal of the war, prevented the United States from fall ining the League of Nations by rejecting confirmation of the Versailles Treaty.
The Republican ticket of Warren G. HARDING and Calvin COOLIDGE won the 1920 election by a landslide. Harding & # 8217 ; s disposal was plagued by dirts, which were inherited by Coolidge after Harding & # 8217 ; s decease in 1923. In a politically sharp move, Coolidge appointed two particular prosecuting officers to cover with the dirts, one from each party. Nominated in his ain right in 1924, Coolidge was reelected by a big border. In 1928, Coolidge declined to run once more, and the Republicans turned to Herbert HOOVER of California. Hoover won by an unprecedented landslide against Alfred E. SMITH. Republicans besides won control of both houses of Congress. Many believed that another epoch of Republican hegemony was clicking, but a quickly intensifying world-wide economic depression brought Hoover and his party to their articulatio genuss. Although the Hoover disposal took stairss to halt the diminution of the economic system, its redresss were by and large thought to be ineffective and excessively late. Hoover was renominated in 1932 in the deepnesss of the Depression of the 1930s, but Franklin D. ROOSEVELT defeated him in one of the great landslide triumphs in U.S. history. The 70-year epoch of Republicanism was at an terminal. One of Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s major achievements was courting the black ballot off from the Republicans.
The Republicans in the Minority: 1932-52
The Republicans were unable to happen a campaigner who could fit Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s popular entreaty. Alf Landon and Wendell L. WILLKIE failed in 1936 and 1940, severally. Mostly isolationist before World War II, the Republicans backed the war attempt, a stance that was to take to back up & # 8211 ; enunciated by Sen. Arthur H. Vandenberg & # 8211 ; for bipartizan foreign policy after the war. The 1944 elections came at a critical clip in the thick of World War II, and New York governor Thomas E. DEWEY became the 4th Republican campaigner to be overwhelmed by Roosevelt. In 1948, Dewey once more was the Republican campaigner, this clip against Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s replacement, Harry S. TRUMAN. He conducted a lacklustre run, lulled into complacence by polls and adept sentiments that forecast a landslide Republican triumph. Truman, nevertheless, defeated Dewey in a great disturbance.
The Eisenhower Era
In 1952 the Republican national convention nominated Gen. Dwight D. EISENHOWER to head its ticket. Although the party was split over the licking of conservative senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio for that nomination, its ticket went on to win a landslide triumph, transporting 39 provinces. Eisenhower & # 8217 ; s running mate was California senator Richard M. NIXON. The 1956 ticket of Eisenhower and Nixon won another decisive triumph, due in portion to Eisenhower & # 8217 ; s moderate class in foreign policy, his successful stoping of the Korean War, and his great personal popularity. Democratic control of both houses, nevertheless, won in 1954, was continued.
In 1960, Vice-President Nixon won an easy triumph for nomination but lost the election to John F. KENNEDY of Massachusetts by the smallest popular border in the twentieth century & # 8211 ; a difference of merely about 113,000 ballots out of more than 68 million dramatis personae. After a acrimonious internal party battle prior to the 1964 Republican convention, Sen. Barry M. GOLDWATER of Arizona wrested the presidential nomination and control of the Republican party off from the Eastern centrists and began an effort to change over the party into an ideologically pure conservative party. His landslide licking by Lyndon B. JOHNSON, nevertheless, left the party organisation in shambles.
The Nixon-Ford Old ages
In 1968, Richard Nixon reappeared to win the party & # 8217 ; s nomination and selected Maryland governor Spiro T. AGNEW as his running mate. Nixon went on to win the election over Democrat Hubert H. HUMPHREY, who was unable to convey his party together after divisions brought on by U.S. engagement in the Vietnam War.
President Nixon & # 8217 ; s first term was marked by many successes, including improved dealingss with China, a more concerted relationship with the USSR, an improved economic system, and what appeared to be important stairss toward peace in Vietnam. In 1972 the Democrats nominated a outstanding antiwar senator, George S. MCGOVERN of South Dakota. Nixon was reelected by an tremendous popular-vote border, transporting every province except Massachusetts and the District of Columbia. Even so, the Democrats continued to command both houses of the Congress. The run, nevertheless, carried the seeds of the political devastation of Richard Nixon. A burglary of the Democratic National Committee central offices in the WATERGATE office composite during the run led to disclosures of widespread civil and condemnable misconduct within the run organisation, disposal, and White House ; IMPEACHMENT hearings were held, and finally Nixon resigned in 1974. An earlier dirt involved Vice-President Agnew, who was forced to vacate in 1973 after being convicted of income-tax equivocation.
Nixon was succeeded by Vice-President Gerald R. FORD, who had been appointed to the office after the surrender of Agnew. Ford faced a serious economic state of affairs & # 8211 ; high unemployment, lifting rising prices, high involvement rates, and immense budget shortages. He was criticized by centrists for making excessively small to still the state & # 8217 ; s economic ailments and by conservativists for offering amnesty to Vietnam-era bill of exchange evaders and for naming Nelson ROCKEFELLER to the vice-presidential term. After a hard primary competition against conservative Ronald REAGAN of California, Ford lost the election to Democrat Jimmy CARTER.
The Reagan and Bush Administrations
By 1980 the evident inability of the Carter disposal to command the economic state of affairs, coupled with a perceptual experience of U.S. powerlessness abroad ( exemplified by the Persian ictus of U.S. sureties ) , favored a Republican revival. Reagan easy won the party & # 8217 ; s presidential nomination ( his most broad opposition, John Anderson, later ran as an independent ) and went on to overpower Carter, taking 489 electoral ballots ( against Carter & # 8217 ; s 49 ) and 51 per centum of the popular ballot. At the same clip, the Republicans won 12 extra seats in the U.S. Senate, taking control of that organic structure for the first clip in 25 old ages.
This Republican revival, nevertheless, was merely partly confirmed in the 1984 elections. Although in his reelection command Reagan routed Walter F. MONDALE, taking 59 per centum of the popular ballot and a record-breaking 525 electoral ballots ( to Mondale & # 8217 ; s 13 ) , the Republicans lost two SENATE seats, while retaining a bulk. Democrats continued to command the House. The form of Republican presidential victory and Democratic additions in Congress continued in 1986, when the Democrats regained a bulk in the Senate, and 1988, when George Bush won the presidential term by a big border.
President Bush & # 8217 ; s blessing evaluation reached an impressive 89 per centum in 1991 after the international alliance he forged against Iraq achieved triumph in the Iranian Gulf War. However, a recession that began in 1990, combined with the electorate & # 8217 ; s turning concern with domestic issues in the wake of the Cold War and public restlessness with & # 8220 ; gridlock & # 8221 ; in the authorities, counted against him in his reelection command. Led by Bill CLINTON, the Democrats in 1992 captured the presidential term ( with 370 Electoral ballots to Bush & # 8217 ; s 168 ) and solid bulks in both houses of Congress. In 1994, holding blocked Clinton & # 8217 ; s legislative docket and mounted an aggressive countermove in that twelvemonth & # 8217 ; s mid-term election run, Republicans seized control of both houses of Congress.
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