Social Structure Essay, Research Paper
Social Structure: model that surrounds us, dwelling of the relationships of people and groups to one another, which give way to and put bounds on behaviour.
Social Institutions: organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic demands.
Ascribed Status: refers to places that an person either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily subsequently in life. age, gender, race, wealth, sibling
Achieved Status: refers to places that are earned, accomplished, or affect at least some effort/activity on portion of single business, married woman, jock, parent, friend, alumnus
Status Inconsistency: contradiction/mismatch between positions. Gertrude from Ghana.
Dramaturgy: theoretical positions that analyzes societal life utilizing the analogy of the phase or theater.
Front Phase: where public presentations are given ; public sphere
Back Phase: where people rest from their public presentations, discuss presentations, program future public presentations. ( Goffman: still executing functions here )
Role Performance: the manner in which person performs a function w/in the bounds that the function provides ; demoing a peculiar manner or personality. Different instructors teach different ways.
Impression Management: people & # 8217 ; s attempts to command the feeling that others have of them.
& # 8220 ; Ferdinand Tonnies & # 8221 ;
Gemeinschaft: type of society in which life is intimate ; a community in which everyone knows everyone else and people portion a sense of togetherness. Gosssip: mechanism for keeping group coherence. Guy losing household, acquiring rejected by small town.
Gesellschaft: type of society dominated by impersonal relationships, single achievements, and self involvement. gesSELLshaft capitalistic/modern society sells
Role Conflict: struggles that an single feels between two or more functions because the outlooks attached to one function are incompatible w/the outlooks of another function.
Role Strain: struggles that person feels w/in same function. instructors: encouraging pupils but holding to rate them ; doctors: do you experience better but give painful interventions.
Ideas to cognize and understand from the talk
? The relationship and similarity between the constructs of gemeinshaft, gesellschaft and mechanical and organic solidarity.
? The maps of societal establishments as defined by a structural functionalism and struggle theory.
? The difference between ascribed and achieved position, every bit good as the ability to use each construct given an illustration.
? The significance of position incompatibility, every bit good as the ability to use the construct given an illustration.
? You should understand Erving Goffman & # 8217 ; s theory of dramatic art and the associated constructs of forepart phase, back phase, function public presentation, and feeling direction.
? The difference between function struggle and function strain and the ability to separate between the two given illustrations.
Write definitions along with an illustration other than the 1s given in the text edition.
Macrosociology: analysis of societal life concentrating on wide characteristics of societal construction, such as societal category and the relationships of groups to one another ; an attack normally used by functionalist and struggle theoreticians. Gallop polls examine the large-scale societal forces by trying legion people instead than making one-on-one interviews.
Microsociology: analysis of societal life concentrating on societal interaction ; an attack normally used by symbolic interactionists. Psychiatrists focus on how what people do when they come together impacts their societal lives.
Social Interaction: what people do when they are in the presence of one another. A sermonizer reding a immature married twosome. He hits her.
Status: the place that person occupies in society or a societal group. The proprietor of a salon, even though she performs services besides, has more clout and is distinguished.
Status Set: all the positions or places that an person has. The salon proprietor is married to another concern proprietor, is in-between category, is a female, etc. These facets all form her set.
Status Symbol: points used to place a position. A stethoscope identifies medical positions.
Maestro Status: a position that cuts across the other positions than an single occupies. Bing considered attractive in your civilization
Function: the behaviours, duties, and privileges attached to a position. They lay out what is expected of people. On a day of the month, my function is to acquire everything paid for for me.
Thomas Theorem: William I. Thomas & # 8217 ; authoritative preparation of the definition of the state of affairs: & # 8220 ; If people define state of affairss as existent, they are existent in their consequences. & # 8221 ; If you think you are traveling to heaven after you die, you do everything in your life thought of that.
Social Construction of Reality: the procedure by which people use their background premises and life experiences to specify what is existent for them.
Ideas that you should cognize and understand from the text edition:
? The differentiation between macrosociology and mirosociology and the analytical orientation of each of the three theoretical positions in sociology.
? You should be able to separate between a position and a function and have an apprehension of maestro position ( read inserts on Christopher Reeve and Stephen Hawking. )
? You are to read and understand the societal building of world as it is exemplified in the & # 8220 ; Gynecological Examination & # 8221 ; on pages 119-120.
Peoples that you should cognize from this chapter:
? Ferdinand Tonnies
? Emile Durkheim
? Erving Goffman
Footings to cognize and understand from Lecture:
Rationalization of Society: a widespread credence of reason and a societal organisation mostly built around this thought.
Ideal Type: Max Weber: complex of features based on many specific illustrations, strictly rational theoretical account.
Quality Circles: group of about 12 workers, 1-2 directors who meet on a regular basis to discourse ways to better quality within the organisation. It & # 8217 ; s the people at the underside that know. It & # 8217 ; s non efficient because nil of all time happens as a consequence of these meetings.
Self-Managed Work Teams ( Small Work Groups ) : little groups/teams of persons who work together to execute their occupation. Loyalty addition, absenteeism lessenings, and produces harder workers.
Employee Stock Ownership: employees purchase the house & # 8217 ; s stock at a price reduction or as portion of their wage. When employees own the bulk of the stock, the house is more profitable and there exists less tenseness as opposed to the houses where employees own merely a bantam sum of the stock
Corporate Day Care: installations at work. Absenteeism decreases, shorter pregnancy leaves, decreased turnover ( discontinuing and go forthing your occupation ) , corporation saves money.
Ideas to cognize and understand from Lecture:
? The relationship between the rationalisation of society and the displacement from mechanical to organic solidarity, gemeinshaft to gesellshaft. ( Table 7.1 dad 175 from text )
? You should understand the relationship between organisation alterations such as quality control circles, self-managed work squads, employee stock ownership, and corporate twenty-four hours care on the bureaucratic construction.
? You should cognize and understand what it is meant by an & # 8220 ; Ideal Type & # 8221 ; and the theoretician that is credited with that construct.
Write definitions along with an illustration other than the 1s given in the text edition.
Formal Organization: a secondary group designed to accomplish expressed aims. College is a formal organisation that we & # 8217 ; ve started to take for granted.
Bureaucracy: a formal organisation with a hierarchy of authorization ; a clear division of labour ; accent on written regulations, communications, and records ; and impersonality of places. Supreme Court.
Five Features of Bureaucracy
1. Clear cut degrees, with assignments fluxing downward and answerability fluxing upward. Everyone has a occupation and they have to reply to person & # 8220 ; higher up & # 8221 ; than them.
2. A division of labour. Each worker has a specific undertaking that they & # 8217 ; ve been tra
ined to make.
3. Written regulations. If there isn & # 8217 ; t a written regulation covering it, it isn & # 8217 ; T allowed.
4. Write communications and records. Fill that out in triplicate, memos, publications, testimonies to service, email etc.
5. Impersonality. We & # 8217 ; re all & # 8220 ; automatons & # 8221 ; that can be replaced easy.
Six disfunctions of a bureaucratism w/a drumhead account of each
1. Red Tape: A Rule is a Rule. Procedures impede the intent of the organisation.
2. Lack of Communication Between Units. When units are so specialised they forget to traverse cite the long term ends and impede the intent of the organisation.
3. Bureaucratic Alienation: Alienation from limited creativeness, lost sense of part and loss of individuality with concluding merchandises.
4. Defying Alienation: workers form primary groups at work, rejecting an individuality as mere machines that exist to execute maps.
5. The Alienated Bureaucrat: doesn & # 8217 ; t do anything for the organisation beyond what they & # 8217 ; re perfectly required to make, uses regulations to warrant making every bit small as possible.
6. Bureaucratic Incompetence: Peter Principle ; employees are promoted to their degree of incompetency. They & # 8217 ; rhenium promoted until they can & # 8217 ; t manage the duties good.
McDonaldization of society: the procedure by which ordinary facets of life are rationalized and efficiency comes to govern such things as nutrient readying.
disaffection: Marx & # 8217 ; s term for the experience of being cut off from the merchandise of one & # 8217 ; s labour that consequences in a sense of impotence and normlessness.
Peter rule: a bureaucratic & # 8220 ; jurisprudence & # 8221 ; harmonizing to which the members of an organisation are promoted for good work until they reach their degree of incompetency, the degree at which they can no longer make good work.
Iron Law of Oligarchy: Robert Michels & # 8217 ; phrase for the inclination of formal organisations to be dominated by a little, self-perpetuating elite.
Goal supplanting: a end displaced by another ; in this context, the acceptance of new ends by an organisation ; besides known as end replacing.
Ideas that you should cognize and understand
You should cognize the features of a bureaucratism every bit good as the disfunctions of a bureaucratism.
You should cognize what is meant by the McDonaldization of society and be able to place it as it exists in your societal universe.
Read and understand the positions box on page 194 of your text. Cultural Diversity Around the World.
Peoples that you should cognize:
Ideas and footings from Lecture
Social Construction/Relativity of Deviance: Piercing Exercise
Biological Theories of aberrance: Implicit in Premise: Aberrance is the consequence of familial sensitivities to perpetrate aberrant Acts of the Apostless
1. Aberrant persons are less intelligent
2. The & # 8220 ; XYZ & # 8221 ; theory: an excess Y chromosome in males leads to offense.
3. The Body Type theory: people with square, muscular organic structure physiques are more likely to perpetrate street offenses.
Psychological Theories of aberrance: Implicit in Premise: aberrance is the consequence of a personality upset within the person
Sociological Theories of aberrance
A. Structural Functionalist Theory: Implicit in Premise: Aberrance performs both maps and disfunctions for society
1. Dysfunctionalist: aberrance represents disfunction and leads to disequilibrium ( instability ) within the societal system and must be minimized or eliminated.
2. Functionalist ( Durkheim ) -deviance serves three maps for society
a. aberrance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms
b. it promotes societal integrity
c. it promotes societal alteration
B. Structural Functionalist
Robert Merton & # 8217 ; s Strain Theory of Deviance
Individual Response Cultural Goals Legitimacy of Means Conformity accept accept
Innovation accept cull
Ritualism cull accept
Retreatism cull cull
Rebellion reject/substitute reject/substitute
C. Structural Functionalist
Illegitimate Opportunity Theory: Underliing Premise: non everyone has equal entree to aberrance.
Symbolic Interactionist theories of aberrance
Differential Association Theory
Structural Functionalist theories of aberrance
Emile Durkheim & # 8217 ; s theory
Illegitimate Opportunity Theory
Conflict theories of aberrance
Class dominated theories of aberrance
Medicalilzation of aberrance
Ideas that you should cognize and understand from the talk
You should cognize why sociologists believe that aberrance is a socially constructed phenomena ( Piercing exercising and Perspectives Box on page 199 of text )
You should be able to separate between biological, psychological and sociological accounts of aberrance.
You should cognize the constituents of the seven sociological theories of aberrance discussed in talk every bit good as the theoretical position that they are associated with.
You should cognize the constituents of Durkheim & # 8217 ; s theory of aberrance as functional for society.
You should thoroughly cognize Robert Merton & # 8217 ; s strain theory of aberrance.
You should understand the relationship between labeling theory and the category treatment of the & # 8220 ; Saints and Roughnecks & # 8221 ; survey and the & # 8220 ; Being Sane in Insane Places & # 8221 ; survey.
You should cognize and understand what is meant by the medicalizaiton of aberrance.
Aberrance: the misdemeanor of regulations or norms
Stigma: & # 8220 ; defects & # 8221 ; that discredit a individual & # 8217 ; s claim to a & # 8220 ; normal & # 8221 ; individuality
Social Control: a group & # 8217 ; s formal and informal agencies of implementing its norms
Official Aberrance: a society & # 8217 ; s statistics on lawbreaking ; its steps of offenses ; victims, violators, and the results of condemnable probes and condemning.
Social Order: a group & # 8217 ; s usual and customary societal agreements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives.
Crime: the misdemeanor of norms that are written into jurisprudence.
Recidivism Rate: the proportion of people who are rearrested
Retribution: the penalty of wrongdoers in order to reconstruct the moral balance upset by the discourtesy.
Disincentive: making fright so people will forbear from interrupting the jurisprudence.
Rehabilitation: the resocialization of wrongdoers so they can go conformist citizens.
Incapacitation: to take away person & # 8217 ; s capacity to perpetrate offenses, in this case, by seting the wrongdoer in prison.
Hate Crimes: offenses to which more terrible punishments are attached because they are motivated by hatred ( disfavor, animus ) of person & # 8217 ; s race0ethinicity, faith, sexual orientation, or disablement.
Negative Sanction: a penalty or negative reaction for disapproved behaviour, for aberrance
Positive Sanction: a wages or positive reaction for sanctioned behaviour, for conformance
Degradation ceremonial: rites designed to deprive an person of his or her individuality as a group member ; for illustration, a tribunal Martial or the defrocking of a priest
The four primary grounds for incarcerating persons:
1. Retribution: wage back for your incorrect
2. Disincentive: create fright
3. Rehabilitation: resocialize
4. Incapacitation: maintaining them off the streets.
Deviance & # 8212 ; *Degradation. A curate would hold to release his place if he was caught rip offing on his married woman.
Ideas that you should cognize and understand
You should cognize the four primary grounds for incarcerating persons
You should cognize the tendencies sing hate offenses in the US pg 221
You should cognize and understand jobs with official offense statistics. P 222
Peoples that you should cognize
Edwin Sutherland differential association and white-collar offenses