Work motive can be defined as ‘a set of energetic forces that originates both within every bit good as beyond an person ‘s being, to originate work-related behavior and to find its signifier, way, strength and continuance ‘ ( Pinder, 1998 ) . It is of paramount importance, holding a direct impact on occupation public presentation and organisational committedness ( Colquitt et al, 2011 ) , every bit good as undertaking public presentation. Lack of work motive in employees of an organisation can take to counterproductive or withdrawal behavior, both extremely unwanted. This is why companies around the Earth are ever inventing new methods to actuate workers.
2.0 MOTIVATION AND REWARDS
There are several motivational theories which explain how wagess affect the behavior of people. These theories describe how administrations can promote employees to use their capablenesss and attempt to fulfill their demands every bit good as attain the administration ‘s purposes ( Armstrong, 2002 ) . It is believed that work motive ( independent variable ) has a direct impact on an employee ‘s public presentation at work ( dependent variable ) . However, it must be considered that motive comes in two signifiers: Intrinsic and Extrinsic. Intrinsic motive is motive which emanates from within the single such as feelings of satisfaction and achievement ( Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010 ) . Extrinsic motive is motive provided by others or external factors such as wage rise and acknowledgment. Below is a theoretical account which explains the nexus between motive, wages and public presentation ( Figure 1.0 )
MOTIVATION THROUGH EXTRINSIC REWARDS
FINANCIAL REWARDS ( Pay and Allowances )
The first employee wages to be considered is money. Research surveies have shown that fiscal inducements have a strong influence on work motive ( Colquitt et al, 2011 ) . This may be because money is the key to fulfilling human demands and wants, and besides because it symbolises power and success. It is in the nature of human existences to ever desire more. Monetary wagess can happen in assorted ways viz. an addition in basal wage and contingent wage such as committee, skill-based wage, service-related wage, performance-related wage and overtime allowance ( Armstrong, 2002 ) . It can hence be assumed that money is so an first-class tool to increase work motive.
FINANCIAL REWARDS ( Profit-Sharing )
Profit-sharing strategies have been implemented under the belief that employees portion hazards and chances, and should therefore portion wages as good. Profit-sharing refers to supplying employees with money from a ‘pool ‘ on the footing of a peculiar expression such as the per centum of net income given may depend on work-performance so as to advance efficient work ( Armstrong, 2002 ) . For case, Thomas Cook does non pay profit-sharing money to employees with low public presentation evaluations ( Armstrong, 2002 ) .
NON-FINANCIAL REWARDS ( Fringe benefits )
Fringe benefits are besides reward schemes which contribute to extrinsic motive. They may include wellness insurance, child care and aid reimbursement, employee price reductions and personal usage of a company-owned vehicle. Promotion chances can besides drive employees to work harder, as a publicity frequently implies a fatter wage or merely a higher position in society. All these can actuate employees to work harder when they are cognizant that wages awaits them. An illustration is the successful American company Enterprise Rent-A-Car, which offers first-class publicity chances ( Colquitt et al, 2011 ) , and which is successful in actuating its employees to work harder.
NON-FINANCIAL REWARDS ( Recognition )
Recognition is besides believed to be a powerful incentive. It is of import that employees are made cognizant of how far they have been successful in executing their undertakings or accomplishing their purposes, and besides their good work must be acknowledged and appreciated. The demand to be recognized arises from Maslow ‘s self-esteem demands from his hierarchy of demands ( Armstrong, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to positive support of the Reinforcement Theory, acknowledgment for a well done occupation, either a simple rap on the dorsum or a public ‘applause ‘ can actuate the employee to reiterate his good public presentation. ‘Desirable effects are linked to a behavior ( eg congratulations after a good occupation done ) -The consequence of this is to increase the chance that the behavior will be repeated. ‘ ( Hollyforde and Whiddett, 2002 ) However, it is recommended that for acknowledgment strategies to be effectual motivational tools, they must be reinforced with fiscal wagess ( Armstrong, 2002 ) . Praise must besides be judiciously given.
NON-FINANCIAL REWARDS ( Non-traditional employee inducements )
Non-traditional employee inducements are going really popular agencies of actuating employees. Examples are flexible on the job hours and work at place options. With the coming of globalization and development in engineering, there are utile tools such as video conference and teleconferencing which can assist. These inducements will peculiarly assist individual parent employees or employees with immature kids and hike their public presentation. There are besides other employee benefits such as paternity leaves, pregnancy foliages and luxuriant pension strategies which may move as good motivational tools. The company W.L.Gore was ranked foremost for the 3rd clip in a row in a study conducted by The Sunday Times where employees were asked to place ‘the best company to work for ‘ . Amongst the many benefits it provides are flexible working and paid pregnancy foliages ( Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010 ) .
MOTIVATION THROUGH INTRINSIC REWARDS
JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
Job features theoretical account ( JCM ) was developed Hackman and Oldham in 1974, which proposed an array of constructs to reenforce internal work motive, better occupation public presentation and satisfaction. The cardinal constructs are uniting undertakings, organizing natural work units, set uping client relationships, perpendicular burden and opening feedback channels ( Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010 ) . The empirical relevancy of JCM in modern organizational environment was evaluated and consequences supported the anticipations of JCM, that is, the constructs mentioned above do better motive, public presentation and satisfaction ( De Varo et Al, 2007 ) .
An applied scientist called Taylor ( 1911 ) proposed scientific direction as a agency to actuate workers, which chiefly focused on undertaking atomization. This procedure of interrupting down a undertaking into several simpler stairss and developing workers to make this turn out to be humdrum, undistinguished and deadening ( Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010 ) . Job enrichment, a technique for broadening the experience of work to heighten employee satisfaction and to better work motive and public presentation ( Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010 ) , was proposed as solution. Job enrichment may be related to occupation rotary motion and occupation expansion. Nokia is a company which implements occupation rotary motion, for case, attorneies are frequently assigned to move as directors ( Bauer and Erdogan, 2009 ) . This fluctuation increases work motive. As Kohn ( 1999 ) quotes: ‘If you want people motivated to make a good occupation, give them a good occupation to make. ‘
4.3 PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND CDP
Career development programs ( CDP ) are effectual in constructing up the intrinsic motive of employees and assisting them advancement. These are in fact internal programmes set up by an administration to develop the accomplishments and attitudes of employees which include larning activities, larning events and classs ( Hollyforde and Whiddett, 2002 ) . Career development programs may even include the support required by an employee within an administration ( Hollyforde and Whiddett, 2002 ) . Psychological authorization is a signifier of intrinsic motive ( Colquitt et al, 2011 ) , but administrations frequently give a assisting manus to their employees in order to construct it up. Workers are closely monitored, are given personal attending, and are frequently given the opportunity to take part in determination devising. Examples where psychological authorization is applied are MindTree and Infosys, both being IT confer withing houses in India and there a participant even qualifies the experience as being ‘very authorising ‘ ( Colquitt et al, 2011 ) .
4.4 GOAL Setting
Another factor to be analysed is end puting as a agency to increase employee motive. Harmonizing to the end theory developed by Locke and Latham, specific and hard ends lead to higher degrees of public presentation than obscure and simple ends, every bit good as engagement in puting ends and feedback on past public presentation ( Armstrong, 2002 ) . Besides, end puting within an administration helps to heighten an employee ‘s ain self-set ends ( Colquitt et al, 2011 ) , and increase his motive. It is besides of import to advert that ’90 per centum of the end puting surveies support the good effects of specific and hard ends on undertaking public presentation. ‘ ( Colquitt et al, 2011 )
As seen from Figure 1.0, work motive influences employee public presentation, specifically task public presentation. An employee who lacks motive may neglect his undertakings and may indulge in counterproductive or withdrawal behavior. For illustration, his absences might go frequent and he might prefer to chew the fat with co-workers than make his occupation. To avoid these, it becomes of import to bring forth motive whether through wagess or any other agencies!
The points made above indicate that employee inducements and wages strategies do increase work motive. Even contextual public presentation or organizational citizenship behavior is encouraged by wages. It has been proved that ‘there is no built-in negative belongings of wages ‘ ( Cameron and Pierce, 2006 ) However, many argue that wages is non effectual at all ; in fact it can even be harmful to the employee. Harmonizing to Kohn, wagess, like penalties, do non hold a permanent consequence on a individual ‘s attitude and can non actuate ; they can merely temporarily alter a individual ‘s actions ( Kohn,1993 ) . He farther quotation marks: ‘Rewards and penalties are non antonyms at all ; they are two sides of the same coin. And it is a coin that does non purchase really much. ‘ ( Kohn,1999 )
Another cardinal point is that wages strategies should be just to all those who form portion of the system or administration and the wagess must be realistically accomplishable by all. If unfairness is perceived, the wages system could backlash and trigger demotivation alternatively of motive ( Hollyforde and Whiddett, 2002 ) .
Fiscal inducements and pecuniary wagess have besides been criticised. Pfeffer ( 1998 ) claims: ‘People do work for money, but they work even more for significance in their lives ( … ) Companies that ignore this fact are basically corrupting their employees and will pay the monetary value in deficiency of trueness and committedness. ‘ ( Armstrong, 2002 ) It has besides been argued that money is seen as a incentive merely by people who have short-run fiscal demands, and hence merely commits them to their occupation alternatively of increasing their motive ( Hollyforde and Whiddett, 2002 ) .
A different statement provinces that reactions to honor policies vary from employee to employee as they depend on the person ‘s values, demands and employment conditions ( Armstrong, 2002 ) . Culture is another of import facet which must be considered. It is believed that people of different civilizations have different incentives ( Colquitt et al, 2011 ) . An employee in France would appreciate vino as a incentive, while in Middle East an employee would see this action as an abuse.
Even end scene has been proved to be a dual edged blade ; it may hold side effects ( Ordonez et al, 2009 ) . Indeed, if ends are excessively narrow, excessively big in figure, or excessively ambitious, they can hold inauspicious effects alternatively of increasing motive. A suited illustration is the bad luck encountered by Sears, Roebuck and Co. ‘s in the early 1990 ‘s, where ends had prompted employees to misdirect clients ( Ordonez et al, 2009 ) .
Sing all the points for and against utilizing wages and inducements to increase the work motive of employees, it can be deduced that they decidedly are effectual motivational tools. However to claim that they represent the ‘best ‘ manner to make so would be an exaggeration, chiefly due to the different cogent evidence which support the fact that wagess can hold backfiring effects. In fact, inducements and wages strategies, in any signifier, must be judiciously provided. Furthermore, sing merely fiscal inducements as motivational tools, they would be more effectual if reinforced with other types of wagess ; money entirely can non hold a permanent motivation consequence.