Tourism As A Development Strategy In The Essay

Third World Essay, Research Paper

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1.1 & # 8211 ; INTRODUCTION International touristry is playing an progressively of import function in the universe economic system, and is increasingly being adopted by many Third World states endeavoring for development. Faced with the terrible limitations of underdevelopment, the determination to promote touristry is being made more and more by Third World authoritiess. In analyzing the broad branchings touristry has on the countries and people concerned, it is executable to analyse its success in the Third World as a development scheme. As a comparatively new phenomenon, the literature is continually spread outing, as more countries of this field are developed and more surveies are carried out. The purposes of this piece of work therefore, are to analyze the growing of touristry as a agency of development in the Third World, sing current literature ; to analyze the ways in which the chosen instance survey of Oaxaca State, Mexico is nearing its quickly turning tourer industry ; to roll up information on touristry in Oaxaca, both in and out of the field ; to analyse the information in a suited manner so as to determine if touristry is the best agent for development for Oaxaca, and therefore the Third World. My pick to transport out a thesis on an facet of Third World development was made as this is where my chief involvements lie within geographics and it would really much complement other classs. My pick of Mexico came approximately due to my cognition of Spanish and besides due to a utile contact I had in Oaxaca. In add-on to this, I am really interested in this increased form of touristry as a scheme for development in the Third World. Chapter 2 will present touristry as an planetary industry and bespeak its turning importance in Third World states. With mention to the current literature in this field, the economic, societal and environmental impacts of touristry on these states will be discussed, which form the footing of any treatment on successes or failures in the industry. In Chapter 3, the methodological analysiss are laid out, taking into Chapter 4, the instance survey. After a brief debut to Oaxaca State, touristry in two specific parts is described, set uping the methods used to pull tourers. In Chapter 5, an effort is made to find the successes of these methods, and eventually in Chapter 6, a decision is sought as to whether touristry is a legitimate scheme for development, in Oaxaca and therefore in the Third World. 1.2 & # 8211 ; DEFINITIONS A few elucidations are first necessary, as words or constructs, such as touristry, Third World and development, are frequently taken for granted but can, nevertheless be defined in assorted different ways depending on the context in which they are used. Tourism is by and large understood as a impermanent, voluntary motion of people, going to a chosen finish outside of their normal topographic points of work and abode for pleasance, concern or instruction ( basically pleasance ) . The trip is a non-recurrent round-trip, the continuance runing between a few yearss and a twelvemonth. The construct of the Third World besides causes confusion. Since the 1950 & # 8217 ; s, the term has been used to specify, & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; those states seemingly outside the First ( advanced-capitalist ) and Second ( state-socialist ) Worlds. `Third World & # 8217 ; is a loose term which is often used even more slackly to denote developing states & # 8230 ; particularly those in Latin America, Africa and Asia. & # 8221 ; ( Johnston, 1994, p. 623 ) In this survey, this definition is satisfactory, although it must non be ignored that this word picture is no longer so simple, with the outgrowth of Newly Industrialising Countries ( NIC & # 8217 ; s ) and the dynamism of the planetary economic order. The impression of the Third World implies separation between the different Worlds and between states, but such distinct boundaries are misdirecting ; even on a smaller, say national graduated table, such divisions are non so straightforward. Thus, nevertheless equivocal a definition, the term `Third World & # 8217 ; is used as a euphemism for the Developing World, the Less Developed Countries ( LDC & # 8217 ; s ) , those portraying many features of poorness, debt, hungriness, malnutrition, ill developed economic systems, low degrees of instruction, high per centum of rural agribusiness, rapid urban growing and high population growing. Finally, a more in depth consideration is necessary to find the, & # 8220 ; most slippy construct of all, & # 8221 ; ( Lea, 1988, p. 4 ) that is the impression of development. The focal point of this work is `tourism as a scheme for development & # 8217 ; , therefore it is indispensable to specify development, in order to find whether touristry is accomplishing this developed province that it & # 8217 ; s purportedly endeavoring for. No individual term can specify perfectly the developmental status of a state or part, since it is a complex economic, societal and political phenomenon. The conceptual significance of development has been fragmented and re-defined for over a century and still shows ambiguity and causes confusion. From environmental determinism and development being basically evolutionary in the 19th century, to the theories of modernization being the paradigm of the mid-twentieth century. This strong belief was that the vertex of development was the Western life style, that development was copying and catching up with the West. The 1960 & # 8217 ; s saw the promotion of the theories of underdevelopment, built on Marxist idea that imperialism, as a consequence of the capitalist system, causes a concentration and centralization of capital and hence uneven development in the universe. Expanding on this, Andre Gunder Frank in his Theory of Third World Dependency, believed that the development of the Third World states would merely be possible if they disconnected from the planetary economic system and pursued their ain national schemes of import-substitution, in order to run into local demands from local resources, and in bend break the concatenation of mutuality. Since the 1970 & # 8217 ; s, the thoughts of these theoreticians of development have been, & # 8220 ; refined, revised and in many instances, rejected, & # 8221 ; ( Corbridge, 1991 p. 17 ) , but all different positions tend to be accepted as paradigms of their coevalss. In current surveies, the whole issue of development in the Third World seems to cover out less incrimination ; to generalise less about whole parts, travel off from expansive theories, sing specific jobs in specific topographic points ; non to reject the thought of core-periphery co-operation and non to disregard capitalist development as a possibility in some countries of the Third World. This new mentality is changing the significance of development to the academic and the standards by which development is defined. The ruling position in the yesteryear, was that development was synonymous with economic development. This thought has been updated and many other facets are now considered as indispensable for development. The World Development Report ( 1991 ) defines development as, & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; a sustainable addition in life criterions that encompass material ingestion, instruction, wellness and environmental protection. & # 8221 ; ( p. 31 ) Presently, it is being considered in a broader sense and there is a inclination to include other of import and related facets, such as, & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; more equality of chance, political freedom and civil autonomies. The overall end of development is hence to increase the economic, political and civil rights of all people across gender, cultural groups, faiths, races, parts and countries. & # 8221 ; ( World Development Report, 1991, p.31 ) In short, definitions of development today encompass a wider scope of societal and environmental standards, every bit good as economic. It is apparent hence, that the whole construct of development, with its definitions, theoretical attacks and indexs in the past and present, is a complex and equivocal field of survey, one big plenty itself to consist an full thesis. However, in this context, it will be taken for granted that the Third World aspires to develop, economically and socially, ( although this in itself is a combative issue ) and an effort will be made subsequently on, to find whether touristry is a successful agent in this procedure for the Third World, and specifically Oaxaca State, Mexico. CONTEMPORARY LITERARY REVIEW 2.1 & # 8211 ; INTERNATIONAL TOURISM International touristry is a turning planetary concern. In general, people in the Developed World have more leisure clip and disposable income at manus, so more people are going. Tourism is now the 3rd largest point in universe trade ( Harrison, 1994, p. 232 ) and is distinguishable from other industries for a figure of grounds. First, it is an unseeable export industry where there is no touchable merchandise, and the consumer personally collects the merchandise from the topographic point of production. As a consequence, no direct transit costs exist outside the finish & # 8217 ; s boundaries, except where transit is owned by the finish, which is rare due to the importance of Transnational Corporations ( TNC & # 8217 ; s ) and international air hoses. Second, the finish countries require the proviso of goods and services necessary in the industry, such as the relevant substructure and retail maps. Third, touristry is integrated into other parts of the economic system straight, through hotels, eating houses, etc. and indirectly, through revenue enhancement grosss and an enlargement in community services, for illustration. Finally, touristry is a really unstable export & # 8211 ; it is really influenced by unanticipated external events, such as climatic events, natural catastrophes, political agitation, or alterations in international currency rates. This volatility means possible visitants are speedy to abandon once popular finishs because of menaces to wellness and safety, such as Beirut and Greece or more late India, Turkey or Japan ; besides people & # 8217 ; s diverse outlooks means the likeliness of people merely sing a finish one time ; and eventually its seasonal fluctuation means sufficient income must be earned during the high season to prolong the low season. 2.2 & # 8211 ; TOURISM IN THE THIRD WORLD Turner ( 1976 ) has described international touristry as, & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; the most promising, complex and under-studied industry encroaching on the Third World. & # 8221 ; ( p. 253 ) Tourism in developing states is a comparatively new activity and it is merely since the late 1960 & # 8217 ; s that the industry has appeared alongside other, more traditional activities, in the literature, as a procedure of development. Krause & A ; Jud ( 1973 ) see, & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; mankind & # 8217 ; s ageless hunt for alien and colourful ( sic ) topographic points, & # 8221 ; ( p. nine ) as a powerful enticement to developing states. Turner identifies the pleasance fringe as a set of host states, & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; stretching from Mexico, through Florida and the Caribbean, to the Mediterranean ; from Beirut through East Africa, the Seychelles, and India to Bali and Bangkok in South East Asia ; through Pacific Islands like Fiji, Tahiti and Hawaii, back to Southern California and Mexico. & # 8221 ; ( 1976, p.253 ) The touristry in this set is non merely confined to these parts and the belt affected is ever spread outing. As more of Latin America, Africa and Asia are pulling more visitants ; more destitute parts are turning to touristry as a primary way to development ; more leisure clip and income are going available ; a decrease in the monetary value of long haul flights ; and `mankind & # 8217 ; continues to detect new finishs. It was in the 1950 & # 8217 ; s and 1960 & # 8217 ; s, that a figure of LDC & # 8217 ; s, such as Greece, Spain and Mexico, every bit good as several East African and South East Asiatic finishs became popular with travelers. In the 1970 & # 8217 ; s, more competition between finishs meant the growing of touristry elsewhere, in North Africa, the Far East and islands in the Caribbean and the Seychelles. Despite the oil crisis and rise in air conveyance monetary values in the early 1970 & # 8217 ; s, and therefore the slack in the universe economic system, international touristry as an industry has been bit by bit set uping itself worldwide. Industrialisation is normally considered the most successful agencies for development. However, many LDC & # 8217 ; s are limited by assorted factors, such as little domestic markets, barriers to an addition in exports of manufactured goods and a scarceness of foreign-exchange net incomes for industrial enlargement. Hence, as a consequence of slow or no advancement, alternate agencies to development are being sought. Faced with rapid population growing, high unemployment, an uneven distribution of belongings, land and incomes, dependance upon agribusiness for income and business, touristry is seen as the ideal solution for the Third World. 2.3 & # 8211 ; IMPACTS OF TOURISM These can be divided into economic, social/cultural and environmental/physical. Initially, the most of import facet to Third World authoritiess, when doing determinations on tourer development, is its economic impacts. However, since the 1970 & # 8217 ; s, work has moved farther and many surveies have shown a veer towards non merely explicating the location and features of this international touristry, but besides the extent to which its branchings affect the countries and people concerned, economically, socially and physically. ECONOMIC IMPACTS Predominantly, it is the economic benefits that are more conspicuous and have been the focal point of most earlier work ( Pearce, 1981, p.1, p.43 ) , although late, the costs excessively are being made apparent. Tourism is a popular inducement for development in Third World states due to its ability to supply difficult currency and so spread out foreign exchange net incomes, in bend bettering the balance of payments state of affairs. Although touristry does bring forth an obvious addition in abroad net incomes, fiscal resources for development and a significant rise in incomes of people employed in the tourer industry straight and indirectly, there is besides the addition in rising prices and land values to see. Tourism creates an inducement for bettering or edifice substructure, airdromes, roads, sanitation installations and societal services for illustration. However, the cost of upgrading these installations is really high for developing states, and is non likely to be financed by developed states without there being some sort of duty to pay back the favor. This enhances the position of neo-capitalist development. As a labor-intensive service industry, touristry is a major generator of employment, supplying chances in hotels, eating houses, travel bureaus, amusement installations and in the edifice of this substructure. In developing states, where there are high degrees of semi-skilled and unskilled unemployed and underemployed people, the industry is of import as it can use these labour resources from the traditional sector of the economic system with small or no preparation. However, Gray ( 1974 ) sees touristry & # 8217 ; s usage of a big proportion of unskilled labor as merely a impermanent stage in the development of the industry & # 8211 ; as touristry grows, it may go reliant on higher skilled labor, which will inherently intend developing those available, or more normally importing them from elsewhere, which is damaging to the finish. In add-on, the few managerial and top degree administrative occupations required will most probably be filled by people from the Developed World, in the instance of international hotels, for illustration. In add-on, the seasonal nature of tourer employment demands adequate earning and budgeting to guarantee survival through low season. In general, nevertheless, there will be an overall encouragement of entrepreneurial activity, and gradual displacement off from traditional to more advanced activity, therefore heightening economic development. All of the above factors, such as employment, income, end product and the balance of payments have been caused by a alteration in the degree of touristry outgo and in bend, making multiplier effects. Tourist disbursement on adjustment, conveyance, nutrient, souvenirs etc. generate income, portion of which will leak out of the economic system through imports, revenue enhancements and nest eggs. The remainder will go secondary disbursement in the economic system, therefore bring forthing more income. This procedure of re-spending of incomes, thereby making extra incomes, is known as the multiplier consequence. Tourism is traditionally seen as a tool for regional development. In Myrdal & # 8217 ; s Model of Circular and Cumulative Causation ( 1957 ) , he saw economic development within a state as a natural procedure. He states that as an industry develops it experiences multiplier effects of improved linkages, communications, substructure and services, doing the developing zone to thrive. Its slipstream effects being damaging to the environing country, doing instabilities in the part. In clip, Myrdal describes the Equalization Stage where a downward motion of wealth and engineering enables the economic system to spread out in environing countries, bit by bit shuting the spread between the two countries. Although Myrdal & # 8217 ; s Model was non purely created for the tourer industry, it can be applied, as with any other industry. The grounds for tourer growing in one specific country, its initial advantage, vary vastly from country to country, from `sunlust & # 8217 ; to `wanderlust & # 8217 ; finishs. As the country additions in popularity, its substructure, services and linkages are improved and the industry grows and prospers to the hurt of the environing country. In clip, when the growing spreads from nucleus to periphery, this outer part develops, either by spread outing its ain tourer industry or by going provider of natural stuffs, goods, humanistic disciplines and trades, in the instance of touristry, to the nucleus, ( although this may hold been go oning all the clip during the growing of the nucleus ) . So, the impact of a growing in touristry in an country non merely affects the country instantly concerned, it besides has different deductions for the environing country. Finally, a major cost to a part of the Developing World is the danger of overdependence & # 8211 ; foremost, on one merchandise & # 8211 ; Internet Explorer. touristry and the increased force per unit area to import, and secondly, overdependence on external powers. In the Third World, touristry is an industry that is dominated by foreign capital and so any determinations made by non-nationals and non-residents may collide or conflict with national aims, but frequently there is no manner out of this state of affairs. SOCIAL IMPACTS The societal impacts of touristry have mostly been ignored in past surveies, but are presently being appreciated for their importance. Unlike other export industries, the consumer has to go to the country of production in order to devour the merchandise. In add-on, this producer-consumer is different to most exchange dealingss as they meet and hence interact individual to individual. This confrontation creates the societal impact and concerns the tourer, the host and the tourist-host interrelatednesss. Most research has been carried out on the latter two classs. The societal and cultural impacts are the manner in which touristry alters behaviour, value systems, household relationships, life styles and community organisations. ( Mathieson & A ; Wall, 1982 ) Tourism can be potentially good to the tourer socially as it broadens their involvements, triping an improved apprehension of the unknown, the foreigner, and the civilizations and life styles of others, exposing a positive presentation consequence. Alternatively, a negative presentation consequence can ensue as the guest-host relationship becomes a customer-seller 1. Tourism can so hold a caustic consequence on the civilization and value systems of the host. & # 8220 ; When a state opens doors to international touristry, its traditions ( nevertheless marketable ) are traveling to be changed, if non threatened. & # 8221 ; ( Harrison, 1992, p. 162 ) The Third World becomes exposed to the West and capable to some of its bad traits, such as offense, harlotry and gaming. It should non be forgotten nevertheless, that new cognition and engineering are filtered to the Third World, although it is combative as to whether this new acquisition is advantageous. The host country can so go non a new and different universe to research, larn from and bask, but a similar universe at a different vicinity. In the words of Mathieson & A ; Wall, ( 1982 ) `euphoria & # 8217 ; becomes `xenophobia & # 8217 ; , as touristry in the Third World becomes justifiably labelled as a new signifier of imperialism. & # 8220 ; Tourism feeds on the colonial urge. Part of the entreaty, the `frisson & # 8217 ; , of going to strange lands is the chance that it may afford to sponsor the hapless native unfortunates who may cognize no better manner of life than that of their fatherland. Tourism, in many ways, is a kind of neo-colonialism. & # 8221 ; ( Boniface & A ; Fowler, 1993, p. 19 ) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS The physical environment constitutes the footing of much tourer development, as it is mostly the fragile environment that attracts the tourers, for illustration, coastal, alpine or historical countries ( Pearce, 1989 ) . Until the mid 1980 & # 8217 ; s, surveies on the physical impact of touristry had been few. Parallel to an increased environmental consciousness late, it has been widely accepted that a growing in touristry will necessarily ensue in alterations of the environment. As this is still a new country of survey, research is thin and uneven, for illustration, much work has been carried out on the impact on wildlife and flora, but non on dirts, air and H2O quality ; on Britain and North America but non on LDC & # 8217 ; s ; on specific ecosystems such as coastlines, mountains and little islands but non on semisynthetic environments ( Pearce, 1981, p.46 ) . Most surveies concentrate on the environmental costs, such as the change of the landscape, congestion in peak seasons, the damaging consequence on wildlife, air and H2O as a consequence of the inevitable urban conurbation. However, few though they are, there are environmental benefits of touristry, such as the increased substructure for whole communities, the opening up of new countries to heighten people & # 8217 ; s grasp of the environment and widening their frames of mentions. There has ever been struggle between preservation and development, and as touristry develops, the environmental impact and attendant landscape alteration will lift in importance in touristry surveies. Irrespective of how much information there is in the literature on each economic, societal and environmental impacts of touristry and of how much this chapter has detailed each of them, all three are acknowledged as of import and it is appreciated that they have a symbiotic relationship and hence the division between the groups is non so univocal than is frequently suggested. As tourer development in the Third World is such a prevailing and recognized country of survey, the research and literature is going more significant. 2.4 & # 8211 ; MEXICO & # 8211 ; AN INTRODUCTION Mexico is a land of extraordinary diverseness ( Alone Planet Publications, 1992, p. 9 ) . Thousands of old ages ago, place to some of the most advanced civilizations, the finish of Hern & # 225 ; n Cortez in the early 16th century and the scene of eternal conflicting civilizations and political relations. After Independence, old ages of instability and with the economic system in serious diminution, the laden fought back. The Mexican Revolution ( 1910-1917 ) , marked the terminal of absolutism and established the base for the new political and economic advancement to come. This new epoch proverb land reform, provincials active in the political system for the first clip and unprecedented economic growing and modernization. The `Mexican Miracle & # 8217 ; of 1930-1965 proverb Mexico & # 8217 ; s agribusiness rise by 5 % per twelvemonth ( Townsend, 1992, p. 9 ) , development of its oil resources to its rise as an NIC, to the importance of fabrication exports and now services replacing agribusiness as the chief signifier of employment, the alterations shaped by policies designed to protect Mexico from the US. Economic jobs culminated ( a faux pas in oil monetary values, devaluation of the peso and stagnancy of foreign capital, Barry, 1992, p. 76 ) and after the debt crisis in 1982, the demand for reform was obvious. Rapid economic recovery took topographic point in the late 1980 & # 8217 ; s, as import permutation, which was successful between 1940 and 1970, was progressively replaced by export orientated development, as policies attempted to take Mexico into the universe economic system, peculiarly into the US. The construction of political relations in Mexico has remained the same since the Institutional Revolutionary Party ( PRI ) led the manner out of the Revolution in 1917. However, during this clip, the character and methods of different opinion parties has altered along the political spectrum. Although holding decreased, allegations of fraud are still widespread in elections and the strength of the resistance still poses a menace, 77 old ages on. The growing from & # 8220 ; flop to din & # 8221 ; ( Whitehead, cited by Sheahan, 1987, p. 302 ) opened up the economic system, but has had dire societal and environmental effects. Mexico is a profoundly divided state, there exists great societal and economic polarisation within all parts, but existent overall contrasts between North and South. The North is more comfortable overall, compared to the South where most of the autochthonal population live, with much intractable poorness. Most investing and development has been centred along the 2000 stat mi boundary line with the US, and on fall ining NAFTA, certainly the spread will widen as more occupations and wealth are created in the North? Full economic recovery, hence depends on the strength of the domestic market, as rewards and life criterions are worsening. Population has risen from about 25 million in the 1950 & # 8217 ; s to about 90 million in the early 1990 & # 8217 ; s ( Barry, 1992, p. nineteen ) . During industrialization, urban development was encouraged ( the urban population rose from 40 % in the 1950 & # 8217 ; s to 72 % in the 1990 & # 8217 ; s, Barry, 1992, p. nineteen ) , and presently the environmental effects of this rapid growing are being felt. Mexico City has become one of the universe & # 8217 ; s largest and most contaminated metropoliss, and may be uninhabitable in mere decennaries ( Barry, 1992, p. twenty ) . All of the above are issues the state has to cover with finely in the hereafter & # 8211 ; the land and its people are at interest. In a state where the bulk, the hapless, experience isolated from the new free market reforms, and in a state where disgruntled peasant rebellions caused old ages of bloody and drawn-out Revolution ( Sheahan, 1987, p.271 ) , it is indispensable that the inequalities are addressed carefully and later reduced. In add-on to Mexico & # 8217 ; s traditional beginnings of wealth & # 8211 ; excavation, fishing, agribusiness and modern fabrication industries, services and now touristry are going progressively of import for the state. With its unlimited attractive forces, Mexico is utilizing its civilizations, culinary arts, handcrafts, architecture, art and history to enticement visitants, together with its changing natural landscapes of comeuppances, mountains, jungles and beaches. Its great diverseness being possibly what attracts so many people & # 8211 ; in supplying something for everyone. METHODOLOGY 3.1 & # 8211 ; METHODOLOGY The usage of a suited methodological analysis is indispensable in all Fieldss of survey. The importance of a relevant method of informations aggregation should be understood as this will take to the simplest reading of information and hence truth of consequences, so as to accomplish a full apprehension of a subject. In the instance of set abouting a geographics thesis on foreign dirts, particularly in a state so different, where attitudes, ethical motives, and civilizations are so miscellaneous, careful planning is important. It is hard to expect what the response will be like, full co-operation can non be taken for granted and it is critical to esteem the sources and their manner of life, so as non to look patronizing. The methods used to analyze touristry vary greatly, in this instance based on participant observation, statistical, theoretical and attitudinal information & # 8211 ; from primary and secondary beginnings, qualitative and quantitative. Extensive reading and research was carried out in readying for the field trip on touristry and development in the Third World and familiarizing myself with the Mexican scene & # 8211 ; history, economic system, political relations, the people and their manner of life. I contacted the Mexican Embassy and the Latin American Bureau in London, together with assorted travel bureaus to obtain any extra information on the subject non available in libraries. In add-on, a questionnaire was designed to obtain attitudinal stuff, which is every bit indispensable as numeral informations in this survey. In this instance, two different questionnaires were asked in two vicinities & # 8211 ; 15 to occupants and 15 to visitants in Oaxaca City and likewise, 15 to occupants and 15 to visitants in Puerto Escondido & # 8211 ; a sum of 60. Although apparently quite a little sample, this is equal as it is the general sentiments that are of import here, the quality and non the measure. The design of each questionnaire is such that a assortment of factual and attitudinal inquiries were asked, sentiments of both occupant and visitant are indispensable in this survey. It must be acknowledged that there are jobs faced when fixing and transporting out this type of study. As the questionnaires were specifically directed at two groups of people, the trying method was non random. It was necessary to inquire resident questionnaires to employees in hotels, eating houses, stores, etc. , those obviously in contact with tourers. Visitor questionnaires were asked to those people remaining in hotels, eating in eating houses, shopping, to those people looking tourist-like. This method does hold its prejudice because as a tourer, more specifically a backpacker going with 3 other backpackers, the sources will non be wholly random, and due to these fortunes, more questionnaires were asked to backpackers than any other tourers. Processing the information, piecing the consequences and portraying them appropriately is critical to convey the information in the best manner and so analyze it in context of the purposes of the survey. With a mixture of factual and attitudinal inquiries, much information can be analyzed and material deducted. In this instance, there is no existent usage for graphical agencies as these would non portray the information every bit good as quotation marks in the text disclosed, but alternatively more accent will be placed on the sentiment and bad remarks that they reveal. In add-on to the questionnaires, the usage of ocular images was of import, in the signifier of exposure, as these are utile to portray an country, although factors such as the conditions, the clip of twenty-four hours and the figure of people, etc. will bespeak, sometimes falsely, how desirable a topographic point appears. In add-on, I visited tourer information agency in Oaxaca City and Puerto Escondido, the public library and T

he Welte Institute for Education in Oaxaca City. I collected numerous brochures and leaflets on tourism in the area and collated data and other information from regional sources, such as state development plans and public records. During the whole field trip, participant observation as a tourist was essential as was communication with residents and visitors in general, to obtain additional opinions and material and to get a feel for the region, as a tourist. Once out of the field, it was necessary to research more on the topic and the exact direction the dissertation would take could be ascertained, together with the compiling of results. TOURISM IN OAXACA STATE 4.1 – GEOGRAPHICAL AND ECONOMIC BACKGROUND Oaxaca’s 94,000 square kilometres make it the fifth largest of Mexico’s 32 states (Fig. 4.11). Situated in the south, most of its terrain is rugged mountains and narrow valleys. In the North and West, ranks of hard-to-penetrate mountains isolate it from the rest of Mexico, towards the East, it occupies the low-lying Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and in the South, the long, narrow coastal plain, separated from the Central Valleys by the Sierra Madre del Sur (Lonely Planet Publications, 1992) (Fig. 4.12). The Y-shaped fertile plain in the Central Valleys, dominated by the capital Oaxaca City, stands at an altitude of 1,550 metres, surrounded by 2,000-3,000 metre high mountains. Approximately 600 kilometres of Pacific Coast is home to some of Mexico’s finest beaches at Puerto Escondido and Puerto Angel and the new mega-resort of Bahias de Huatulco (Bays of Huatulco). The climate is pleasant, temperatures on the coast ranging from 20-37 degrees and from 13-32 degrees in the Central Valleys (Lonely Planet Publications, 1992, p.648). Oaxaca blends the history, tradition and culture of the pre-hispanic people and Spanish conquistadors, together with traits of the modern world. Various marks have been left on the landscape of the prehispanic Zapotec and Mixtec civilisations, whilst there remains clear manifestations of the colonial period with magnificent architecture. Despite new and elegant hotels and other expressions of modernity, the region remains Indian at heart. Oaxaca is one of the poorest states in Mexico. The inequalities evident between North and South are enhanced by the region’s virtual isolation and almost disconnection from the rest of the country. This remoteness caused Oaxaca’s almost absence from the Revolution. In the 1920’s, financial crises in the state, followed by an earthquake in 1931, devastated the region. When the rest of Mexico was experiencing the economic miracle from the 1940’s, when industrialisation and economic growth soared, Oaxaca lagged behind. When the debt crisis hit Mexico in 1982, economic growth halted and inflation escalated, Oaxaca felt it, but not as harshly as the rest of the country (Murphy & Stepick, 1991, p. 79). First impressions of Oaxaca are not of the Third World, but underlying indicators of high malnutrition, infant mortality, illiteracy, unemployment, etc. imply a poor and underdeveloped region. However, in the `colonias populares’ the poor living conditions are visibly evident. Population has multiplied four-fold and now the city has a population of about 300,000, and rural villagers continue to migrate to the city in search of employment (SEDETUR, 1994), a distinct characteristic of the Third World. The region’s economy is based on small-scale, market-oriented agriculture, based in Indian villages where family businesses have built up artisan handicraft production, altogether ensuring the city’s dependence on its surrounding region. The city is the commercial centre and has increased the flow of goods in and out of the region, expanding its links with the rest of the country. These inequalities have been exacerbated by the lack of industrialisation in the area, Oaxaca City produces 1 % of Mexico’s total industrial goods (Murphy & Stepick, 1991, p. 79). Oaxaca’s hindrance to industrial development is mainly caused by its geographical isolation. Links to Mexico City are crucial for industrialisation and the range of rugged mountains means rail and highway transportation is slow. This lack of national market, together with the lack of agricultural surplus, mineral production and other resources such as water and electricity; and limited access to capital has meant the omission of Oaxaca in Mexico’s path to industrialisation (Murphy & Stepick, 1991, p. 85). Foreign investment into Oaxacan manufacturing extends only to bottling soft drinks. It is all of the above factors that have fostered the decision of the regional and national government, as in other Third World countries, to promote the growth of tourism as a means of developing the region and stimulating economic and social growth. Oaxaca’s service industry has grown since the 1960’s and 1970’s and now it plays a very important role in the economic profile of the whole state. The resolution of tourism as a development strategy is becoming more popular with Third World governments, using different aspects of their country to attract visitors, from safaris in Kenya, to reef diving in Belize. Since an increased government involvement since the 1970’s, Oaxaca has realized its potential and has been taking advantage of its preconquest archaeological sites, colonial architecture, villagers producing handicrafts and stunning beach resorts, to entice the tourists. The specific areas that this dissertation is concerned with are Oaxaca City and the Central Valleys; the Pacific coastal resorts of Puerto Escondido and Puerto Angel and a little further south the new mega-resort of Bahias de Huatulco. These areas are completely contrasting in their approach to tourism and the people that they attract. 4.2 – TOURISM IN OAXACA CITY AND THE CENTRAL VALLEYS In 1987, the historic centre of Oaxaca was officially declared to belong to the Heritage of Mankind by UNESCO. The city is commonly used as a base to tour the region and its many attractions. In the city itself (Fig. 4.21), many old colonial buildings have been transformed into hotels, restaurants and handicraft shops. The zocalo (main plaza) is the geographical and social heart of Oaxaca, beautifully shaded, traffic free, lined with cafes and restaurants and street vendors, this area attracts many people for strolling, band concerts and people-watching. The north side of the zocalo is dominated by the cathedral of Oaxaca, and a few blocks north, the more striking Church of Santo Domingo (Plate 4.21). These and many other colonial buildings such as the Basilica of La Soledad, the Church of San Felipe Neri and the Convent of Santa Catalina all attract visitors. When the Spaniards arrived in Mexico and realized that they had discovered a world of unrivalled beauty, their architectural style was drawn partly from their own culture and partly from those already there, such a style not repeated anywhere else and is regarded with pride by the regional government when maintaining and reconstructing old buildings. From the Regional Museum of Anthropology and History, filled with a collection of relics and jewellery excavated at the nearby archaeological site of Monte Alban, and the Rufino Tamayo Museum of Pre-Hispanic Art, to the Graphic Arts Institute and Museum House of Benito Juarez, where this former Mexican President worked. It is clear that the Oaxacans are using every element of their history to attract tourists, in providing something for everyone. These attractions are not specifically aimed at tourists but also for the local population. Rufino Tamayo donated his private collection to the people of Oaxaca, and the free entry to museums on Sundays is to enable the locals too, to benefit from these attractions. The buildings are built hard against the pavement in a blaze of unexpected colours (Chunn, 1994), the layout of blocks running from east to west and north to south, gives the impression of uniformity but on closer inspection, every street is unique and has something different to offer the visitor (Plate 4.22). Other attractions to the city, to the entire region, include the gastronomy and shopping. Oaxaca has produced some of the finest regional dishes in Mexico and in 1986, there were over 400 establishments in the capital, selling food and drink and in 1993, there were over 72 first class restaurants in the whole state (Alvarez, 1994, p. 54). Oaxacan handicrafts are admired all over Mexico and the world and attract many people to the shops and markets of the city (as the main market centre), and to the Indian Villages in the surrounding Central Valleys, here the majority of products are still made (Fig. 4.22). Carpentry includes brightly painted wood animals from Arrazola; good quality ceramics, such as black pottery from San Bartolo Coyotepec and the green crockery of Atzompa; machete making in Ocotlan; leather and tinware from the city itself; gold and silver are normally reproductions of Monte Alban jewellery and lastly, the colourful textiles such as `sarapes’, rugs, dresses and weaves can be found all over the Valley. These many artisanal handicrafts reflect the artistic spirit of the Oaxacan people and although originally made for the local population are now used to attract tourists outside the region and the country. The sixteen different ethnic groups of Oaxaca enrich the traditions of the state and give a special flavour to the festivities that take place through-out the year, playing their part in attracting the hordes. The most important is the `Guelaguetza’ or `Monday on the Hill’, which takes place in July at the large open-air amphitheatre on the wooded hill of Cerro del Fortin overlooking the city. The tradition, going back to when the pre-hispanic Zapotecs, Mixtecs and Aztecs held a festival to honour their maize gods, followed by Christian priests celebrating the feast of the Virgen del Carmen, and since then, pilgrimages have continued to the present day. Magnificently costumed dancers from the seven regions of Oaxaca (almost 500 costumes) perform lively traditional dances to live music. The `Guelaguetza’ is very important for tourism in the area, as thousands of people flock to the city, mainly from the region itself. Hotels fill quickly and the financial gains for the locals are important. Again it is the cultural image that is being used to attract visitors. Although the majority of visitors are Oaxacans during the festival, the Guelaguetza is presented and performed in various hotels weekly and sometimes nightly throughout the year, which attract more non-regional tourists. Other festivals such as the Radish Night (begun in 1889) celebrate the art and imagination of the Oaxacan people, figures are carved from radishes and displayed in the zocalo. As well as in the city itself, the many attractions in the surrounding regions play their own role in tourist activity. In addition to the handicrafts and markets here, a major part of tourism for Oaxaca is the magnetism of visitors to the archaeological zones. These historical mounds of the preconquest period are dotted around the landscape of the Central Valleys and show evidence of these intelligent, creative Indians when developing great civilisations. In the Valley of Oaxaca, 10 km west of the city, is the archaeological site of Monte Alban or `White Hill’ (Plate 4.23). Situated on an artificially-flattened hilltop, 400 metres above the Valley floor, it’s a stunning view of endless mountain peaks and valleys. The site dates back to 600 B.C., flourishing until 900 A.D. under Zapotec rule and then from 1200 A.D. until the Spanish conquest, under the Mixtecs. Monte Alban is centred around a central plaza and is noted for its remarkable architecture, clay urns and stone carvings, especially the `danzantes’ carvings of human figures (Plate 4.24). The site at Monte Alban is of great tourist interest, with daily bus tours from Oaxaca City, official guides and other tourist facilities on site, catering to the needs of visitors. The regional government is attempting to make the site accessible for as many visitors as possible and is responsible for reconstructing some mounds to their original appearance (Plate 4.25). Various urns, masks, jewellery and other Zapotec and Mixtec artifacts have been excavated from tombs and are on display in museums in Oaxaca City. There are still many tombs that could be potentially excavated, when the money and the need arises. Into the Valley of Tlacolula, east of the city, is a mass of tourist attractions. The ruins of Yagul, Dainzu and Mitla, the market in Tlacolula, weavers in Teotitlan del Valle and the cypress tree at El Tule – at over 2,000 years old it is claimed to have the largest girth of any tree in the world, at 42 metres round. These all add to the list of attractions used to lure visitors. Mitla, `City of the Dead’, was the last Mixtec-Zapotec site before the Spanish conquest. The outstanding feature is the architecture with its intricately carved designs and mosaic work. Being located further out from the city, accommodation and other tourist facilities have been provided in Mitla itself, encouraging a longer stay in the Valley. The Oaxacans have undisputedly been using aspects of their cultural life as tourist traps – archaeological sites, colonial architecture, festivities, markets, museums and cuisine, overall playing on their indigenous image, selling this image on postcards and in travel brochures (Plates 4.26-4.28). Recently another tourist attraction was set up to reinforce this image, when in 1993, the Tourist Yu’u was inaugurated. With the assistance of SEDETUR, eight small tourist houses were established in eight Indian villages each with their own charm (Plate 4.29, Fig. 4.23). Designed by a Dutch architect, in attempt to contribute to the development of the Oaxaca Valley, they have been built on an ecological basis, hinting at `green tourism’. The houses are painted bright turquoise and equipped with all basic facilities, the guests being able to meet and interact with the Zapotec Indians and in this way, villagers can make a living and the traditions and folklore of this ancient people can be preserved. The pleasant, subtropical climate and tranquillity of the remote surroundings are what attract people, together with the ability to establish contact with the Zapotec people. An added attraction is the location of the Tourist Yu’u, and their proximity to the many other attractions in the Valleys. The Oaxacan government recognizes the need for the training of people within the tourist industry, the inauguration of promotional campaigns and projects to attract national and international visitors to the area. The importance of improving the quality of present services and the installation of additional accommodation facilities, recreation centres, transportation means is established by the government and various authorities, in its attempt to strengthen the strategic role of tourist industry in the development of the area. 4.3 – TOURISM IN THE COASTAL REGION For some travellers, Oaxaca City is merely a stopover on the way to a `laid-back’ stint on the Oaxacan coast (Fig. 4.31). Newly paved roads through mountainous country and more flights have brought this isolated region (an area of 12,500 sq. km) closer to the rest of Mexico since the mid 1970’s. Despite this, the two fishing villages-come-traveller’s havens of Puerto Escondido and Puerto Angel are still relatively small and more relaxed than most idyllic coastal spots. In contrast, to the east is the site of a chosen megaproject on the once sparsely populated Bahias de Huatulco. These two regions are incredibly different in what they offer, their approach and hence the tourists they attract. PUERTO ESCONDIDO AND PUERTO ANGEL Puerto Escondido (`Hidden Port’), with a population of 50,000 (Carrizosa, 1994, p. 11) is an enchanting little village, 263 km. from Oaxaca, through rainforest-filled mountains (Fig. 4.32). For a long time, the only foreigners who knew about Puerto Escondido were surfers and backpackers. This has only slightly altered, but the charm and natural beauty of the resort remains. The population is scattered over numerous hills and valleys but the main extent of the town covers a hill side that rises from the main bay. The main ocean front street, Avenida Perez Gasga (Plate 4.31), is traffic-free and hosts many hotels, restaurants and shops, providing adequate facilities for the tourist. The main bay (Plate 4.32) curves around at its east end, to the long Zicatela Beach, although dangerous for swimming, it is famed among surfers as the fourth best surf beach in the world (Plate 4.33). Set back from the beach are several bungalows and cabanas, hammocks in beach huts style, with a few bars and restaurants, attracting a certain type of tourist. It seems that the locals are content to play host to board-riders, their disciples and the occasional backpacker passing through (Plate 4.34). Larger hotels can be found in the town and to the West, where other beaches line a series of bays, creating a wide dispersion of tourism in this small town. Accessible by boat or road is Puerto Angelito where a woman on the beach rents out colourful hammocks and snorkelling gear, and the only building is a palapa-covered (thatched) seafood restaurant. Further along are the Bays of Carrizalillo and Bacocho, hosting small hotels in more secluded areas. Organized tours from the town visit the mangrove-lined lagoons, with exuberant tropical vegetation and a myriad of exotic wildlife at Manialtepec and Chacahua; and other horse-riding and snorkelling excursions. All watersports are an attraction to the area, as well as the overall tranquil atmosphere and the inevitability of relaxation and regeneration. An advert for Puerto Escondido reads, “Don’t forget to take sunblock, something to read, and a `manana’ attitude. Your visit could likely be what you remember most about Mexico when you return to the hustle and bustle of the work world.” (Carrizosa, 1994, p. 11) Hedonism is the rage. In 1990, the Mexican President, Carlos Salinas de Gortari (1988-1994), visited Puerto Escondido. Since then, the resort has received immense support from the government in its determination for widespread appreciation of the beautiful region and concern for its future. Plans were formulated to encourage a yearly international surf tournament, and hence the inevitable tourist invasion of Zicatela Beach. By 1991, the development of basic infrastructure was planned, to raise the standard of living, together with the controlled growth of urbanisation, in the creation of a new commercial, hotel and residential centre. At the same time, Puerto Escondido received its first charter flights from Canada together with a major rejuvenation of the local airport and other tourist transportation; this whole new series of events marking the start of a major tourist development project in the area. Eighty-one kilometres eastward along the coastal road is the similar sleepy little fishing village of Puerto Angel. Still predominantly undiscovered, the village lies on a bay in between two rocky headlands, supplying only the barest essentials to the traveller. Accessible only by recently paved road, the tenor of local life here is very slow, despite the increase in tourist flow. Puerto Angel has a tiny beach itself, but the travellers’ haven is considered the beaches either side of the village, in particular, the long, empty stretch of pale sand called Zipolite. The wide, palm-fringed beach is about 2 km. long, and home to palm-huts, hammocks and a few cheap bars where nudity is not a problem, nor is the marijuana, “Time takes a back seat in Zipolite and people often stay far longer than they planned (if they planned).” (Lonely Planet Publications, 1992, p.696) The surf is deadly , fraught with riptides and currents, and the swimming is lethal, so the keen surfers of Puerto Escondido do not venture this far east, more the laid-back hippy type travellers, creating a slightly different tourism altogether. BAHIAS DE HUATULCO Different plans have been made for the Bahias de Huatulco, merely 48 km. east of Puerto Angel. Here, nine pristine, idyllic bays cover 35 km. of beautiful Pacific coastland. Endless bays and coves are enclosed by the Sierra Madre mountains on one side and the Pacific Ocean on the other. In the early 1980’s, Huatulco was a barren, isolated wilderness with no electricity, no water lines, no phones and no sewage drainage systems. Fishing and agriculture enabled the forty or so families to survive and the only access was a 237 km. dust track to Oaxaca City (Mexican Ministry of Tourism n.d.). In 1983, Mexico’s National Fund for Tourism Development (FONATUR) began a carefully designed development programme to create paradise, with a mix of modernism and nature. FONATUR, developers of Acapulco, Cancun and Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo, is now responsible for 13 `mega-projects’, as an attempt to double the number of tourists to Mexico by the year 2000 and bring Mexico into the 21st century. Intensive planning was carried out on Mexico’s 10,000 km coastline, in order to find suitable locations for potential mega-resorts. The Bahias de Huatulco were chosen, amongst others all over the country, and work was well underway by 1985, open to its first visitors in 1988. The plans included the construction of new hotels, mainly large international chains, such as Sheraton and Holiday Inn and some inexpensive hostels; all inclusive resorts, such as Club Med.; shops, restaurants, bars, nightclubs, casinos and an 18-hole golf course, everything to cater for the tourists’ needs. Work also included the construction of a highway, making all nine bays accessible; and the building of a modern airport to receive domestic and international flights. Santa Cruz de Huatulco has become the area’s administrative and commercial centre. However, the major attraction of the area are the bays themselves, white sand, clear waters, and an abundance of marine life, unblemished by pollution, noise and crowds, until tourist development perhaps? The tourist invasion has met some resistance from the locals who have witnessed an instant modern city spring up on tangled forest (Lonely Planet Publications, 1992, p. 699). However, FONATUR is determined that the Bahias de Huatulco will not become contaminated like other resorts. The project’s aim is to strengthen the regional economy by integrating the area’s fishing activities with tourism, so they develop alongside the major development. FONATUR recognizes the value and importance of the area that has been preserved for centuries and the need to acclimatize tourism to this fragile environment. The Municipal Government of Oaxaca attended a tourism conference in 1993, concerning Madrid, Milan, Berlin, Paris, Acapulco and Huatulco. The festival dealt with tourism’s future in an international market, emphasizing the importance of competitiveness and promotion, via training programmes and the development of advertising campaigns. In general, it is evident that Oaxaca State, as a whole, is taking advantage of its historical and modern attributes to strengthen its tourist industry. As legacies of its past, preconquest archaeological sites attract visitors to the City and Central Valleys, as do the architectural features of the colonial period, together with its handicrafts, markets and festivals, with the added culinary appeal a bonus. In this respect, the Central Region is playing on its cultural image, on its traditions and heritage to strengthen the role of its tourist industry in the development of the region. On the other hand, the coastal region plays on its genuine beauty to attract tourists. The “tropical, tranquil and tantalizing” environment, (Carrizosa, 1994, p. 11) the natural charm of the coast, with its sun, sea and sand being the features that tourism relies on in this area, which will in turn enhance the development of the region. These images of the coast are too, sold in travel brochures and on postcards (Plates 4.35-4.37). A translation of a section from the Doctrine, 1992b, Gobierno del Estado de Oaxaca (Oaxaca State government) on 6 years of transformation 1986-1992, p. 24 states, “It’s the natural beauty, the beauty of open spaces, the historical singularity, that attracts visitors from all over the world to our area. However, it is not enough to rely strictly on a tourist mechanism for the visitor to come and return…it is essential that tourist activity develops in an atmosphere of peace and tranquillity that makes a civilised and stable environment for the visitor. It demands wisdom and respect from the inhabitants, not just in their relation with the tourist, but as much in the preservation of stability and social order.” (own translation). The Doctrine goes on to describe the attempts to curb inequality in the state and integrate poles of tourist attractions with their location, so that affluent paradises are not surrounded by belts of misery. So, together with improving the economic development of the region, plans are to develop the tourist industry alongside the societal environment, with efforts to raise the standard of living in the region. The aim is not to simply create an attractive front for the visitor, but to also establish a completely developed society, ensuring the well-being of the Oaxacan people and their natural environment. This section is an example of Mexican political rhetoric, that effectively extricates the government from any blame or criticism for not approaching tourism conscientiously. It remains to be seen whether these plans will be carried out in full. THE IMPACT OF TOURISM ON OAXACA In the previous chapter, it was discussed how the contrasting localities in Oaxaca have been attracting tourists, playing on cultural images, idyllic beach spots, etc. It is now necessary to ascertain the effects of tourism on the economy, society and environment in order to determine the legitimacy of tourism as a development strategy. 5.1 – OAXACA AND THE CENTRAL VALLEYS In 1991, 800,000 people visited Oaxaca and the Central Valleys, with an economic expense of over MX$ 136 bill. (Gobierno del Estado de Oaxaca, 1992a, p. 15). This will undisputedly be economically beneficial to the area, automatically improving the balance of payments situation as it increases the receipts from inbound tourists, thus creating a more positive balance. For the main tourist centres of Oaxaca, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Angel and Huatulco, the tourist spending increased from MX$62.3 bill. in 1987 to MX$815.8 bill. in 1992. (Gobierno del Estado de Oaxaca, 1992a, p. 14). This large increase will have undoubtedly benefitted the economy of the tourist centres concerned, and hence the whole state. This capital comes from spending on accommodation, transport, food and souvenirs and will thus increase the incomes of those involved. However, it is not known how this is then respent and what quantities go on to the next round in the multiplier effect. It is also not known if much of this economic expenditure trickles down to those areas that need it the most, for example, the people in the `colonias’ on the outskirts of the city and the rural villagers in the surrounding Central Valleys. The main attractions in the Central Region seem to be the archaeological sites outside the city. Questionnaire results reveal that 12 out of the 15 people appreciated the area most due to the sites of Monte Alban, Mitla, Yagul, etc. Due to this, bus and taxi services are benefitting economically from tours to the sites and the sites themselves will benefit as more financial resources become available for any preservation or restoration needed, in addition to the incomes any craft/souvenir sellers on the site that will benefit from increased tourism. The markets are also an important source of income, as the traditional, colourful handicrafts are another popular attraction to the tourist. The markets in the town charge more than in the rural villages, but the remittances back to the villages of production are important for their sustenance. The Tourist Yu’u is still in its early stages and thus it is hard to predict success. Only 2 of the 15 visitors questioned, had heard of this scheme and were planning a stay in one. Getting `back-to-nature’ and `eco-tourism’ seem the `new thing’ and could potentially prove successful. However, with the reasonable prices charged, will yields be high ? The exceptional circumstances here, that the Tourist Yu’u are run by the villagers themselves, mean that payments go directly to the rural communities, at a grassroots level, which is the level at which most Non-Governmental Organizations tackle development problems. The types of tourists is important in determining the economic gains. Oaxaca City is evidently very popular with backpackers, among the 15 asked, 9 were student backpackers and a further 3 were backpacking (although questionnaire bias has already been recognized). Travellers on a low budget obviously do not spend as much money as other tourists, reducing economic expenditure. Throughout this dissertation, international tourism has been emphasised as this is the current trend in the Third World, and the importance of Mexican tourism has not been credited. However, in 1986, 87 % of visitors to the Central Valleys were nationals, the other 13 % foreign (Alvarez, 1992, p. 72). Domestic tourism is especially important in the Guelaguetza festivities, people come from all over Mexico for these celebrations. So, with the majority of foreign travellers (mainly North Americans and Europeans) visiting Oaxaca, spending merely 2-5 days in cheap hotels and hostels, as a stopover to see the sites before heading off to the beach, it is evident that Oaxaca will have to rely on its national visitors to boost the tourist income. A major benefit of tourism is tha