Volume And Capacity Of Lung Biology Essay

Spirometer is an instrument which is used to mensurate the volume and capacity of lung. It collects the air expired by the patient to mensurate the lung volume or capacity. The spirometer has a device attached to it which will mensurate the motion of gas in and out of thorax and this device is called as Spirograph. And in some spirometers, spirographs are replaced by pressman called Spirogram. In most of the computerized system the spirographs or the spirogram will expose the predicted value following to the ascertained value. Using spirometer assorted trials are carried out to find whether the patient is holding any respiratory upset or non.

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT

The intent of the undertaking is to develop a spirometer which is of really low cost and can be used in rural wellness attention centres, private clinicians and primary map research labs to observe whether the patient is holding any respiratory upset or non by transporting out three basic tests-

Tidal Volume ( Television ) -The sum of air that is breathed in and out by an single during normal respiration.

Forced Vital Capacity ( FVC ) -The sum of air that is maximally forced out of the lung after maximal inspiration.

Forced Expiratory Volume In 1sec ( FEV1 ) – The sum of air that can be maximally forced out of the lung in the first second of forced expiratory manuever.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

To plan a low cost microcontroller based spirometer and transport out the assorted lung operation trials.

To develop a plan for the microcontroller to mensurate the lung volume and expose the consequences digitally on a LCD interfaced with it.

Chapter 2

Respiratory DISORDER: SYMPTOMS & A ; CAUSES

2.1 RESPIRATORY DISORDER

Respiratory upset A trades with theA diseasesA of theA respiratory system which include diseases of theA lung, A pleural pit and bronchialA tubing. Respiratory diseases range from mild to life-threatening such asA bacterial pneumoniaA orA pneumonic intercalation which may take to illness and decease. The survey of respiratory Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProject
espiratory-system.jpg

disease is known asA pulmonology. A physician who specializes in respiratory disease is known as a pulmonologist.

Fig 2.1 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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Some of the common respiratory diseases are:

Inflammatory lung disease.

Clogging lung disease.

Restrictive lung disease.

Pleural pit diseases.

Respiratory tract infection.

Pneumonic vascular disease.

2.2 OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE

Clogging lung diseasesA are diseases of the lung in which theA bronchialA tubes become narrowed.E: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProjecthealthy-vs-copd.jpg

Two illustrations for clogging lung disease are:

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( COPD ) is a disease in which the air passages become damaged and therefore doing them narrow. Asthma causes obstructor to the air flow out of the lungs.And the obstructor is reversible.A

Fig 2.2 COPD

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bami.us/Resp/COPD2.html )

2.2.1 SYMPTOMS

Persistent cough.

SputumA or mucus production.

Wheezing.

Chest stringency.

Fatigue.

2.2.2 CAUSES

Smoke.

Occupational exposures.

Air pollution.

Geneticss.

Autoimmune disease.

2.3 RESITRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE

Restrictive lung diseaseA is besides known asA restrictive ventilatory which restricts the lung enlargement and at that place by decreases the lung volume and increases work of breathing.adam_lung_emphysema.jpg

Fig 2.3 EMPHYSEMA

( hypertext transfer protocol: //lungcancer.ucla.edu/adm_lung_disease.html )

Symptom

Shortness of breath, cough.

2.3.2 CAUSES

Asbestos isA caused by long-run exposure to asbestos dust.

Radiation fibrosis ( radiation used for malignant neoplastic disease intervention ) .

Rheumatoid arthritis.

2.4 DIAGNOSIS OF ABNORMALITY OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM USING FEV1/FVC RATIO

In restrictive lung disease, bothA FEV1A andA FVCA are reduced so theA FEV1/FVC ratioA is normal.

In clogging lung diseaseA FEV1A is reduced while theA FVCA is normal therefore theA FEV/FVC ratio is lower.

TABLE-2.4.1 FEV1 RATIO AND ITS SEVERITY

FEV1

Badness

a‰? 80 % of predicted

Normal

60-80 % of predicted

Mild clogging.

40-60 % of predicted

Moderate

a‰¤ 40 % of predicted

Severe

TABLE-2.4.2 FVC RATIO AND ITS SEVERITY

FVC

Badness

& gt ; 80 % of predicted

Normal

60-80 % of predicted

Mild restrictive.

50-60 % of predicted

Moderate

& gt ; 50 % of predicted

Severe

Chapter 3

LITERATURE SURVEY

Writers

Techniques USED

Consequence

LIMITATIONS/FUTURE VISION

Agarwal.V Ramachandran N.C.S,

2008 [ 1 ]

The patient exhales through the mouthpiece where the gas exchange is being acquired as the electromotive force signal by the transducer ( detector ) .

This signal from the detector is amplified by an instrumentality amplifier ( INA 114 ) .

Then the amplified signal is filtered utilizing a low-pass-filter which is so given to a ADC ( ADS7812 ) for digitization.

After digitization it is given to the microcontroller ( Intel ) from which the information is displayed on the LCD screen.

For farther communicating on cyberspace, ETHERNET device is used.

The end product electromotive force from the amplifier is digitised utilizing ADC which corresponds to the force per unit area difference across mouthpiece is computed by the microcontroller and displayed on the LCD screen.

In future the system is expected to be cheap

medical attention for 1000s of patient.

Dr.David Van Sickle et.al,

2009 [ 2 ]

Initially the patient is allowed to run out through the spirometer.

The spirometer consists of a force per unit area detector ( HW 24 ) which gives a DC electromotive force as end product.

This DC electromotive force is propotional to the force per unit area bead between the leads which is recorded by the spirometer.

This parallel informations is so converted to digital utilizing ZMD 31014 “ iLite ” bit.

Microcontroller ( PIC18f13k50 ) is used to change over the digital information to USB.

Using mathematical algorithm implemented in the computing machine it calculates the volume and shows on the screen.

Graphic show of flow V volume is evaluated and monitored from which the following values can be calculated: PEF, FVC, FEV ( T ) and FEV1/FVC ratio.

Highly expensive.

Nagaraja K.A,

Nanda.S, 2007 [ 3 ]

The patient exhales the air through the mouthpiece which consists of a flow detector, differential force per unit area detector, instrumentality amplifier, low base on balls filter and ADC.

The flow detector relates the speed and the force per unit area of air blown if there is no air flow through the detector the speed is converted to force per unit area and this force per unit area difference is sensed by the difference flow detector which inturn provide the electrical measure of the air flow.

Inorder to take noise and magnify the signal an instrumentality amplifier is used.

The signal is so fed to the set base on balls filter of the scope 0.05Hz to 1.3Hz, where the spirometer lies in the scope of 0.1Hz to 12Hz.

The filtered signal is digitised utilizing ADC and this information is read by a microcontroller which is so interfaced to a computing machine.

Normally measured parametric quantities are FVC, FEV1, Television and MVV so the ratio FEV1 to FVC is calculated and monitored on the screen.

Depending on these values we determine whether the patient is normal ( or ) enduring from either restrictive ( or ) clogging upset.

Not portable

Ovlyaguli et.al,2001 [ 4 ]

The trial is performed utilizing cuneus holla type spirometer the FVC and FEV1 informations collected are investigated where the trial is performed on different patient and are grouped consequently.

Then a mathematical mold procedure is carried out based on fuzzed values obtained from the flow graphs.

These values for the topic with COPD is compared with healthy capable belonging to same age, sex and tallness.

The compared values are normalized for fuzzy labels i.e ; they are labeled as follows ‘Very low ‘ , ‘low ‘ , ‘Normal ‘ , ‘High ‘ , ‘Very High’which is the generated on regulation base and simulated.

Supply the interrelatedness between characteristic invariables obtained from the curves and grade of disease from which the FEV1 values are measured.

In future it eliminates the mistake factors and helps in accurate diagnosing.

Chapter 4

OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT

4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig 4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

4.2 PRINCIPLE OF WORKING

The spirometer consists of a turbine flow detector incorporating LED ( beginning ) on one side and a photo-diode ( sensor ) on the opposite side. Inbetween the LED and the sensor there is a rotor. The rotor is a fan like construction with 3 fives. The above agreement is present inside a cylindrical instance which is opened on both the sides. The LED and the photo-diode are molded with a light weight plastic design inside the instance. A mouth piece is fitted on one side and the opposite side is kept unfastened. When the patient blows air inside the oral cavity piece a force per unit area difference is created due to the atmospheric air ( atmospheric force per unit area ) that enters from the opposite side. A power supply circuit is designed to supply power supply to the spirometer. When the patient exhales through the oral cavity piece the rotor rotates. Whenever the rotor is mediate the beginning and the sensor the visible radiation from the beginning is non detected by the sensor and when the rotor is non mediate them so the visible radiation from the beginning is detected by the sensor. Each pulsation will be detected merely if 7ml of gas has been exhaled by the patient. These pulsations are so given to the comparator which will give binary end product merely if the patient is expiring. And when the patient is non expiring there is no end product from the comparator. This ouput is so given to a microcontroller which is programmed in such a manner that it will number the figure of pulsations from the comparator and these pulsations are converted into entire figure of rotary motions by spliting them ( no of pulsations ) by 3 ( since the rotor has 3 fives ) . These rotary motions are so used to mensurate the lung volume. The lung volume is so displayed on a LCD which is interfaced with the microcontroller as digital end product.

Chapter 5

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

5.1 ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT

po.bmpFig 5.1.1 POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT

Fig 5.1.2 POTENTIAL DIVIDER AND COMPARATOR CIRCUIT

Fig 5.1.3 MICROCONTROLLER & A ; LCD DISPLAY

5.1.1 POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT

A 12V and a 5V power supply circuit was implemented.

5.1.1.1 STEP-DOWN Transformer

Transformer being used is a 230V-step down transformer.

It converts AC to AC without any alteration in frequence

5.1.1.2 BRIDGE RECTIFIER

The rectifying tube used is IN4007 which acts as span rectifier and converts the given AC current to DC.

5.1.1.3 IC 7812 & A ; IC 7805

The two ICs are used to supply 12V and 5V supply severally.

12V from IC7812 is given to the turbine flow detector.

5V from IC7805 is given to LM324 & A ; Microcontroller

5.1.2 SENSOR

The detector used here is FT-330 Turbine flow sensor.The input to the detector is the air blown by the patient.

5.1.2.1 FEATURES

Can defy temperature upto 80 degree celcius.

Molded with electronics and a light weight plastic design.

5.1.2.2 ADVANTAGES

Highly accurate.

Very compact.

Reliable.

5.1.3 POTENTIAL DIVIDER AND ZENER DIODE

The end product of the turbine flow detector is given to the possible splitter.

The possible splitter will cut down 12V from the turbine flow detector and allows a decreased electromotive force to zener rectifying tube.

The zener rectifying tube is used to repair a threshold i.e it allows merely electromotive force within 5V to the comparator.

5.1.4 COMPARATOR

LM324 Acts of the Apostless as a comparator which gives a electromotive force within 5V ( square moving ridge ) when the patient exhales through the detector.

And when the patient does non expire, the comparator end product gets reduced to 0V.The end product of the comparator is given to the microcontroller.

5.1.4.1 FEATURES

Internally frequence compensated for unity addition.

Large DC electromotive force addition of 100 dubnium.

Wide bandwidth ( unity addition ) 1 MHZ.

Wide power supply scope:

Single supply 3V to 32Vor double supplies A±1.5V to A±16V.

5.1.4.2 ADVANTAGES

Eliminates need for double supplies.

Four internally compensated op As in a individual bundle.

Power drain suited for battery operation.

5.1.5 MICROCONTROLLER

The microcontroller used here is 16F877A.

The microcontroller receives input from LM324.

The microcontroller is programmed in such a manner that it will number the figure of pulsations from the comparator and these pulsations are converted into entire figure of rotary motions by spliting them ( no of pulsations ) by 3 ( since the rotor has 3 fives ) .These rotary motions are so used to mensurate the lung volume ( Television, FVC, FEV1 ) .

5.1.5.1 FEATURES

RAM=368 bytes

EEPROM=256bytes

PROGRAM MEMORY=8Kilo bytes

I/O PINS=33

5.1.5.2 ADVANTAGES

This IC can be reprogrammed and erased up to 10,000 times.

It is really cheap.It can besides be really easy assembled.

Extra constituents needed to do this IC work is a 5V power supply, 20MHz crystal oscillator and two 22pF capacitances.

5.1.6 LCD DISPLAY

The end product ( Television, FVC, FEV1 ) from the microcontroller is displayed on the LCD harmonizing to the plan.

5.2 MECHNICAL DESIGN ( MATERIALS USED ) :

5.2.1.TURBINE FLOW SENSOR

5.2.1.1 Model

FT-330 Turbine flow detector

5.2.1.2 Advantage

Highly accurate, compact and dependable.

5.2.1.3 FEATURES

Can defy temperature upto 80 degree celcius.

Molded with electronics and a light weight plastic design.

5.2.2. MOUTH PIECE

Made up of plastic with a diameter of 2cm.

Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNMy DocumentsMy PicturesPicturePicture 001.jpg

Fig 5.2.2.1 MOUTH PIECE

Chapter 6

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

6.1 OVERVIEW OF CIRCUIT WORKING

Initially the patient is allowed to blow through the detector and the end product electromotive force from the detector is given as input to the possible splitter circuit which limits the current to zener rectifying tube and which in bend reduces 12V supply from the possible splitter end product and allows merely 5V to be given to the inverting terminus of LM324 ( comparator ) . Reference electromotive force is given to trap 3 which gets the feedback from LM324 end product. Hence when the patient does n’t blow, a high electromotive force is received by pin 2 ( inverting terminus ) which is compared with the mention electromotive force, since the input electromotive force is greater than mention electromotive force we get a low electromotive force ( 0V ) at the end product and no pulsation is seen and when the patient blows, input electromotive force is less than mention electromotive force so we get a high electromotive force at the end product and a train of pulsations can be seen. Then the LM324 end product is given to the microcontroller ( pin 33 ) and the concluding values are displayed on the LCD screen

.

6.2 CIRCUIT Testing

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Fig6.2.1 BREADBOARD CONNECTION

6.3 Consequence

Television o.jpg

Fig6.3.1 OUTPUT FROM SENSOR ( Television )

FVC 1.jpg

Fig6.3.2 OUTPUT FROM SENSOR ( FVC )

FEV 2.jpg

Fig6.3.3 OUTPUT FROM SENSOR ( FEV1 )

Image0874.jpg

Fig 6.3.4 OUTPUT FROM COMPARATOR ( Television )

Fig 6.3.5 OUTPUT FROM COMPARATOR ( FVC )

Fig 6.3.6 OUTPUT FROM COMPARATOR ( FEV1 )

Picture 008.jpg

Fig6.3.7 LCD DISPLAY ( Television )

Picture 011.jpg

Fig6.3.8 LCD DISPLAY ( FVC )

Picture 006.jpg

Fig6.3.9 LCD DISPLAY ( FEV1 )

Chapter 7

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

7.1 ALGORITHM

1.Initialize the count to 0.

2.When the patient exhales, the figure of pulsations from LM324 will be counted i.e. ; the count gets incremented.

3.This count is converted into rotary motions since the rotor has 3 fives, if we get 3 pulsation, it is considered as 1 rotary motion. So by spliting the count by 3 we will acquire the entire figure of rotary motions.

4.The LM324 will give 1 pulse merely if 7 milliliter of gas is exhaled. So the entire figure of rotary motions is multiplied by 7 to obtain the lung volume.

5.Initially the flag will be 0.When the patient exhales Television will be displayed.

6.When the reset is done the flag will be 1.Now when the patient exhales FVC will be displayed.

7.When the reset is done once more the flag will be 2.Now when the patient exhales FEV1 will be displayed.Again when the reset is done and the patient exhales so Television will be displayed.

7.2 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS

TABLE-7.2.1 NORMAL VALUES OF Television, FVC AND FEV1 FOR MALE AND FEMALE ( Age=20 to25 )

Subject

Television ( milliliter )

FVC ( L )

FEV1 ( L )

Male

500

4.39+/-0.11

3.44+/-0.09

Female

390

3.55-3.57

2.18

TABLE-7.2.2 Television, FVC AND FEV1 RESULTS FOR FEMALE ( Age,20 to25 )

Case

Television ( milliliter )

FVC ( L )

FEV1 ( L )

CASE1

210

2.24

1.05

CASE2

252

2.8

2.1

CASE3

294

2.38

2.45

CASE4

336

2.94

2.27

7.3 Validation

7.3.1 Trial RESULT FOR SUBJECT 1

Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProjectRespiFVC ( raa ) .bmp

Fig 7.3.1.1 FVC VALUES

Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProjectRespiGraphraa.bmp

Fig 7.3.1.2 FVC GRAPH

Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProjectRespiSVC ( Raa ) .bmp

Fig 7.3.1.3 SVC GRAPH

7.3.2 Trial RESULT FOR SUBJECT 2

Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProjectRespiFVC ( R ) .bmp

Fig 7.3.2.1 FVC VALUES

Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProjectRespiGraphr.bmp

Fig 7.3.2.2 FVC GRAPH

Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProjectRespiSVC ( R ) .bmp

Fig 7.3.2.3 SVC GRAPH

7.3.3 Trial RESULT FOR SUBJECT 3

Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProjectRespiFVC ( s ) .bmp

Fig 7.3.3.1 FVC VALUES

Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProjectRespiGraphS.bmp

Fig 7.3.3.2 FVC GRAPH

Tocopherol: Documents and SettingsSSNDesktopProjectRespiSVC ( SNew ) .bmp

Fig 7.3.3.3 SVC GRAPH

7.3.4 Trial RESULT FOR SUBJECT 4 C: UsershiAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsTemporary Internet FilesContent.WordFVC ( T ) .bmp

Fig 7.3.4.1 FVC VALUES

Degree centigrades: UsershiAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsTemporary Internet FilesContent.WordGrapht.bmp

Fig 7.3.4.2 FVC GRAPH

Degree centigrades: UsershiAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsTemporary Internet FilesContent.WordSVC ( T ) .bmp

Fig 7.3.4.3 SVC GRAPH

TABLE-7.3 COMPARISON OF TESTS RESULTS OBTAINED USING HELIOS PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST AND FROM DESIGNED SPIROMETER ( FOR FEMALE, AGE=21 )

Subject

HELIOS PULMONARY FUNCTION Trial

DESIGNED SPIROMETER

SUBJECT-1

Television ( L )

1.42

1.3

FVC ( L )

2.05

2.24

FEV1 ( L )

1.72

1.05

SUBJECT-2

Television ( L )

1.75

1.59

Subject

HELIOS PULMONARY FUNCTION Trial

DESIGNED SPIROMETER

FVC ( L )

2.76

2.80

FEV1 ( L )

2.52

2.1

SUBJECT-3

Television ( L )

1.20

1.21

FVC ( L )

2.68

2.3

FEV1 ( L )

2.50

2.45

SUBJECT-4

Television ( L )

1.20

1.26

FVC ( L )

2.99

2.94

FEV1 ( L )

2.58

2.27

7.4 Inference

Therefore the trials consequences obtained from the designed spirometer lucifers with the trials consequences obtained from the research lab spirometer.

Minor differences in the value is due to consequence of environing environment and traveling air.

Chapter 8

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

8.1 Decision

The aim of the undertaking was to plan a low cost spirometer for the rural wellness attention centres, private clinicians and primary map research labs. In order to confirm the aim of our work, we compared the market monetary value of presently available spirometer ( MIR SpiroDoc Spirometer ) , the starting monetary value of which is around $ 1974.50.

TABLE-8.1 COST OF EACH COMPONENT

Component

QUANTITY NO

Cost

Turbine flow detector

1

450

Resistors

8

20

Capacitors

5

30

Diodes

5

60

IC LM324

1

150

Transformer

1

250

Intelligence community 7812

1

150

Intelligence community 7805

1

150

PIC 16F877A

1

175

Liquid crystal display

1

220

Crystal Ocsillator

1

25

Entire cost: Rs 2000/-

Therefore the trials consequences of four topics obtained from the designed spirometer was compared with the trials consequences obtained from HELIOS Pulmonary Function trial. The values had some minor differences due to consequence of environing environment and traveling air. But they were of acceptable truth.

8.2 FUTURE WORK

Future work involves interfacing the device with Personal computer and execution of the merchandise in Telemedicine application for distance monitoring of respiratory parametric quantities.

Appendixs

APPENDIX 1

PIN CONFIGURATION OF LM324 ( COMPARATOR )

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APPENDIX 2

PIN CONFIGURATION OF PIC16F877A

bit pinout PIC16F877A

APPENDIX 3

OVERVIEW OF PIC 16F877A

PIC16F877A at a glimpse